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Daniel M. Grindle, Lauren Baker, Mike Furr, Tim Puterio, Brian Knarr and Jill Higginson

subject may distribute load to the workstation if he or she leans on the desk while writing or using the computer. We also expected that the participants would exhibit greater swing hip abduction; stride width; stride length; minimum toe clearance; and swing and stance ankle, hip, and knee flexion as a

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William W.N. Tsang and Christina W.Y. Hui-Chan


To determine whether older golfers have better static and dynamic balance control than older but nongolfing healthy adults.


Eleven golfers and 12 control participants (all male; 66.2 ± 6.8 and 71.3 ± 6.6 yr old, respectively) were recruited. Duration of static single-leg stance was timed. Control of body sway was assessed in single-leg stance during forward and backward platform perturbations. The lunge distance normalized with respect to each participant’s height was used to compare the 2 groups in a forward-lunge test.


Golfers maintained significantly longer duration in static single-leg stance. They achieved less anteroposterior body sway in perturbed single-leg stance and lunged significantly farther than did control participants.


The better static and dynamic balance control exhibited by older golfers possibly reflects the effects of weight transfers from repeated golf swings during weight shift from 2-leg to predominantly 1-leg stance and from walking on uneven fairways.

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Jeremy Hapeta, Rochelle Stewart-Withers and Farah Palmer

this in mind, we reinforce the importance of assuming a strengths-based stance ( Paraschak, 2013 ) as Indigenous and KM scholars, and we illustrate this argument using the sport for social change case studies based in Aotearoa NZ. The research originates from a “ground-up” perspective ( Pihama, Cram

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Saud F. Alsubaie, Susan L. Whitney, Joseph M. Furman, Gregory F. Marchetti, Kathleen H. Sienko and Patrick J. Sparto

represent a relatively small subset of conditions that may be used in balance therapy. In addition to examining the effect of reducing sensory input (eg, standing on foam or closing eyes); assessing a change in the base of support (eg, standing in semitandem stance); and perturbing the vestibular system (eg

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Ben Langley, Mary Cramp and Stewart C. Morrison

, and ankle joint kinematics were calculated. Gait cycle parameters were identified from the kinematic data. 32 Joint angles were averaged and time normalized to 100% stance phase duration. All joint angles were normalized for each participant to their static posture recorded barefoot in a relaxed

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Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Paulo Giusti Rossi, Theresa Helissa Nakagawa, Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale and José Rubens Rebelatto

/abduction) during stance phase ( Muir et al., 2012 ). Statistical Analysis The sample size was calculated using the G*Power 3.1 software (Franz Faul, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany). A minimum of 108 subjects should constitute the total sample, assuming the type of study design, a type I error at 5%, statistical

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Bradley S. Beardt, Myranda R. McCollum, Taylour J. Hinshaw, Jacob S. Layer, Margaret A. Wilson, Qin Zhu and Boyi Dai

calculated with landing of the right foot prior to the left foot defined as positive. Stance time was quantified as the time duration between the first foot initial contact and second foot takeoff. Hip centers were defined as 25% of the distance from the ipsilateral to the contralateral greater trochanters

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Justine J. Reel, Leslie Podlog, Lindsey Hamilton, Lindsey Greviskes, Dana K. Voelker and Cara Gray

) qualitative investigation of female figure skaters, we adopted a social constructivist stance to view the experiences of female professional dancers through a lens of a phenomenon highly influenced by environmental and cultural factors. This approach was used to give voice to participants and enable them to

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Ainaz Shamshiri, Iman Rezaei, Ehsan Sinaei, Saeed Heidari and Ali Ghanbari

, 4 The BESS was originally developed to diagnose and assess athletes with concussion syndrome and distinguish them from persons with no concussion. 5 In the BESS, postural control is measured in 3 positions (double-leg stance, tandem stance, and single-leg stance), each on both a firm and a foam

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Jan Andrysek, Susan Klejman and John Kooy

The goal of this study was to investigate clinically relevant biomechanical conditions relating to the setup and alignment of knee-ankle-foot orthoses and the influence of these conditions on knee extension moments and orthotic stance control during gait. Knee moments were collected using an instrumented gait laboratory and concurrently a load transducer embedded at the knee-ankle-foot orthosis knee joint of four individuals with poliomyelitis. We found that knee extension moments were not typically produced in late stance-phase of gait. Adding a dorsiflexion stop at the orthotic ankle significantly decreased the knee flexion moments in late stance-phase, while slightly flexing the knee in stance-phase had a variable effect. The findings suggest that where users of orthoses have problems initiating swing-phase flexion with stance control orthoses, an ankle dorsiflexion stop may be used to enhance function. Furthermore, the use of stance control knee joints that lock while under flexion may contribute to more inconsistent unlocking of the stance control orthosis during gait.