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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, José G. Villa, Raúl Pernía and Carl Foster

protocols. 2 Also, a large capacity to sustain high intensities during prolonged submaximal work has been reported. For example, the ventilatory (VT) and respiratory compensation (RCT) thresholds have been measured at ∼70% and ∼90% of VO 2 max, respectively, 1 – 3 and a gross efficiency of ∼24% has been

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Alison Keogh, Barry Smyth, Brian Caulfield, Aonghus Lawlor, Jakim Berndsen and Cailbhe Doherty

cost of running 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Lactate concentration at turnpoint 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Maximal sustainable fraction of VO 2 max 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Velocity where lactate goes above baseline 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Ventilatory threshold 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) VO 2 max at lactate threshold 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Annual training

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Susan Vrijkotte, Romain Meeusen, Cloe Vandervaeren, Luk Buyse, Jeroen van Cutsem, Nathalie Pattyn and Bart Roelands

psychobiological state characterized by an acute increase of subjective perceptions of effort and fatigue provoked by prolonged and demanding cognitive activity. 6 It involves processes such as vigilance and sustained attention and can be induced by cognitively demanding computer games or prolonged cognitive

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Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin and Klavs Madsen

allowed sustained high fat oxidation during subsequent exercise despite increased insulin concentration and attenuated ketosis during the inter-exercise period. 40 g of maltodextrin intake only partly affected the enhanced exercise induced fat oxidation. Whether intake of protein or carbohydrate in the

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David Giles, Joel B. Chidley, Nicola Taylor, Ollie Torr, Josh Hadley, Tom Randall and Simon Fryer

can be sustained decreases as a hyperbolic function of increasing power, speed, tension, or force (eg, power illustrated in Figure  1 ). 6 Consequently, performance and the point of exhaustion are highly predictable. When work data are plotted against time, it may be observed that power output falls

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Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco and Alfred Nimmerichter

Critical power (CP) is defined as the highest sustainable rate of aerobic metabolism without a continuous loss of homeostasis. 1 It separates power-output (PO) intensities, for which exercise tolerance is predictable (PO > CP), from those of longer sustainable durations (PO < CP). The second

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Matthew Ellis, Mark Noon, Tony Myers and Neil Clarke

action of adenosine, which increases cell activity. 5 Direct antagonism of adenosine receptors may improve aerobic performance through enhanced excitation–contraction coupling through increased release of Ca 2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 6 Similarly, it can reduce pain perception and sustain

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Tiago Turnes, Rafael Penteado dos Santos, Rafael Alves de Aguiar, Thiago Loch, Leonardo Trevisol Possamai and Fabrizio Caputo

Oliveira, Bernard’Augusto Ferrazza Dias, Eduardo Gomes de Azevedo Filho, and Rudemar Brizola de Quadros. References 1. Muthalib M , Millet GY , Quaresima V , Nosaka K . Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy for measuring biceps brachii oxygenation during sustained and repeated isometric

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Scott Cocking, Mathew G. Wilson, David Nichols, N. Timothy Cable, Daniel J. Green, Dick H. J. Thijssen and Helen Jones

ischemic conditions, 2 it remains unknown whether previously observed local IPC-induced metabolic adaptations 9 , 30 may have contributed to these findings. Nevertheless, the current data are suggestive that traditional IPC, applied locally, enhances the ability to sustain the same workload for a

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Simon A. Rogers, Chris S. Whatman, Simon N. Pearson and Andrew E. Kilding

Successful middle-distance (MD) running in distances from 800 m to 5000 m requires both rapid and economical movements. Athletes must sustain high running velocities at and above maximal aerobic speeds, 1 with sprint performance in the final lap of 1500-m races often determining medalists on the