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Joel Garrett, Stuart R. Graham, Roger G. Eston, Darren J. Burgess, Lachlan J. Garrett, John Jakeman and Kevin Norton

sustainment of performance output, while also minimizing excessive muscle damage. Along with NMF having an effect on the ability to sprint, decreases were observed within the mediolateral vector (PL1D side ) and anteroposterior vector (PL1D fwd ). This may mean that either directly, or due to modifications in

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, José G. Villa, Raúl Pernía and Carl Foster

protocols. 2 Also, a large capacity to sustain high intensities during prolonged submaximal work has been reported. For example, the ventilatory (VT) and respiratory compensation (RCT) thresholds have been measured at ∼70% and ∼90% of VO 2 max, respectively, 1 – 3 and a gross efficiency of ∼24% has been

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Robert H. Mann, Craig A. Williams, Bryan C. Clift and Alan R. Barker

calibrated automatic analyzer (YSI 2300; Yellow Springs Instruments, Yellow Springs, OH) in duplicate and averaged for subsequent analysis. LT and LTP were visually obtained by plotting blood lactate against running velocity and were approved by 2 independent reviewers. LT was accepted as the first sustained

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Alison Keogh, Barry Smyth, Brian Caulfield, Aonghus Lawlor, Jakim Berndsen and Cailbhe Doherty

cost of running 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Lactate concentration at turnpoint 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Maximal sustainable fraction of VO 2 max 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Velocity where lactate goes above baseline 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Ventilatory threshold 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) VO 2 max at lactate threshold 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Annual training

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Susan Vrijkotte, Romain Meeusen, Cloe Vandervaeren, Luk Buyse, Jeroen van Cutsem, Nathalie Pattyn and Bart Roelands

psychobiological state characterized by an acute increase of subjective perceptions of effort and fatigue provoked by prolonged and demanding cognitive activity. 6 It involves processes such as vigilance and sustained attention and can be induced by cognitively demanding computer games or prolonged cognitive

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Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin and Klavs Madsen

allowed sustained high fat oxidation during subsequent exercise despite increased insulin concentration and attenuated ketosis during the inter-exercise period. 40 g of maltodextrin intake only partly affected the enhanced exercise induced fat oxidation. Whether intake of protein or carbohydrate in the

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Bent R. Rønnestad, Tue Rømer and Joar Hansen

maximal aerobic speed (MAS) is recommended. 8 However, continuous work at MAS can only be sustained for ∼6 minutes in well-trained runners and cyclists. 9 , 10 Therefore, there is a quest for developing HIT sessions that optimize time ≥90% VO 2 max by balancing work and recovery durations and

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David Giles, Joel B. Chidley, Nicola Taylor, Ollie Torr, Josh Hadley, Tom Randall and Simon Fryer

can be sustained decreases as a hyperbolic function of increasing power, speed, tension, or force (eg, power illustrated in Figure  1 ). 6 Consequently, performance and the point of exhaustion are highly predictable. When work data are plotted against time, it may be observed that power output falls

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Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco and Alfred Nimmerichter

Critical power (CP) is defined as the highest sustainable rate of aerobic metabolism without a continuous loss of homeostasis. 1 It separates power-output (PO) intensities, for which exercise tolerance is predictable (PO > CP), from those of longer sustainable durations (PO < CP). The second

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Matthew Ellis, Mark Noon, Tony Myers and Neil Clarke

action of adenosine, which increases cell activity. 5 Direct antagonism of adenosine receptors may improve aerobic performance through enhanced excitation–contraction coupling through increased release of Ca 2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 6 Similarly, it can reduce pain perception and sustain