This study compared the teaching behaviors of elementary physical education specialists with those of classroom teachers (nonspecialists) while teaching physical education classes. Additionally, data were collected on student activity levels to detect similarities or differences in classes taught by specialists versus nonspecialists. Four specialists and 7 nonspecialists were observed during a 3-month period using the Teacher Observation Schedule (Rushall, 1977). The group time-sampling technique, Placheck recording, was used to gather data on the students’ levels of activity during the observed classes. It was found that specialists had significantly higher values in more effective teaching behaviors such as feedback/reward, questioning, and directing/explaining/informing, and significantly lower values in less effective teaching behaviors such as monitoring/attending. Additionally, there were significantly higher levels of activity for students in classes taught by specialists.
Nell Faucette and Patricia Patterson
The purpose of the study was to understand how contextual factors influenced three teachers’ willingness to embrace and implement a curriculum based on the teaching of thinking skills within middle school physical education. The teachers were selected because teaching thinking skills was an important part of the central mission of their schools, and they were involved in planning and teaching thinking skills in physical education. Observations of lessons, formal interviews with the teachers and administrators, and curriculum documents provided the data base for analysis using constant comparison and analytic induction. In addition, the value orientations of all teachers within each department were obtained using the Value Orientation Inventory (Ennis & Chen, 1993). Results indicated that school and community support, teacher value orientation and collegiality, and teacher’s perception of the relationship of physical education to broader curricular innovation influenced the teachers’ acceptance of teaching thinking skills as a curricular focus.
Guy Faulkner and Colin Reeves
The importance of physical self-perceptions in relation to exercise behavior has been acknowledged. However, the importance of physical self-perceptions in relation to specific attitudes has been overlooked. This study used a self-report questionnaire to assess the physical self-perceptions and attitudes toward teaching physical education of a sample of final-year, female, primary school student teachers (N = 116). The most positive attitudes toward teaching physical education were recorded by students reporting more positive physical self-perceptions. Comparisons between students with low and high attitudes toward teaching physical education using MANOVA and discriminant function analysis confirmed these findings. Specifically, students with the most positive attitudes toward teaching physical education reported stronger self-perceptions of sports competence, and perceived competence in the sport subdomain was deemed more important than the other subdomains. It is speculated that these findings reflect a process of cognitive consonance mediating physical self-perceptions and attitudes.
Deidre Connelly and Robert J. Rotella
This paper describes issues and strategies related to teaching social assertiveness skills to athletes. Social assertiveness is examined as a key ingredient for effective communication and athlete satisfaction. Communication difficulties and issues frequently encountered in working with athletes, relevant to assertiveness skills, are discussed along with examination of team member issues that athletes must confront in order to function effectively in assertiveness situations. Specific strategies for teaching assertiveness skills to groups and individuals are presented and include applications to various sport settings.
Mats M. Hordvik, Ann MacPhail and Lars T. Ronglan
In this study, we articulate and share our knowledge and understanding of teaching and learning Sport Education in physical education teacher education (PETE): (a) How did the PETE faculty member experience teaching about teaching Sport Education? and (b) How did the PSTs experience learning about teaching Sport Education?
One PETE faculty member (the first author) and twelve PSTs took part in a university Sport Education unit. Data were collected through the PETE faculty member’s open-ended reflective diary and focus groups with three PST teams.
The PETE faculty member and PSTs experienced various challenges such as bridging theory and practice when learning about teaching Sport Education and articulating the “what”, “how” and “why” when teaching about teaching Sport Education.
Sport Education is a complex curriculum and instructional model, encouraging further interrogation of the theoretical implications of the model.
Yannis Theodorakis, Konstantinos Bagiatis and Marios Goudas
The aim of this study was to examine attitudes and intentions of physical education students toward teaching individuals with disabilities. The planned behavior model and two exogenous variables (attitude strength and role identity) were used to examine antecedents of students’ intentions for teaching individuals with disabilities in the future. The sample consisted of 99 university students taking adapted physical education courses. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that the role identity and attitude strength variables mediated the effects of subjective norms and attitudes toward behavior on intention. Also, perceived behavioral control was not a direct determinant of intention but affected the attitude strength variable. Findings are discussed in terms of theoretical as well as practical implications for understanding attitude-behavior relationships in physical education for special populations. It seems that professionals’ intentions to work with individuals with disabilities are formed as part of their role identity in the society and are affected by professionals’ attitude confidence toward teaching individuals with disabilities.
Iva Obrusnikova and Suzanna R. Dillon
As the first step of an instrument development, teaching challenges that occur when students with autism spectrum disorders are educated in general physical education were elicited using Goldfried and D’Zurilla’s (1969) behavioral-analytic model. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 43 certified physical educators (29 women and 14 men) using a demographic questionnaire and an elicitation questionnaire. Participants listed 225 teaching challenges, 46% related to cooperative, 31% to competitive, and 24% to individualistic learning situations. Teaching challenges were categorized into nine themes: inattentive and hyperactive behaviors, social impairment, emotional regulation difficulties, difficulties understanding and performing tasks, narrow focus and inflexible adherence to routines and structure, isolation by classmates, negative effects on classmates’ learning, and need for support.
Lijuan Wang, Jing Qi and Lin Wang
This study examined the behavioral beliefs of physical education (PE) teachers about teaching students with disabilities in their general PE (GPE) classes and to identify the factors that contribute to their beliefs. A total of 195 PE teachers from a region in eastern China were surveyed. Results of the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals With Disabilities-III survey indicate that although some teachers felt that including students with disabilities in GPE classes provides benefit for them, they were concerned about the practical difficulties of teaching students with disabilities in GPE classes, the lack of support, and the possible rejection of students with disabilities by their peers. Moreover, the behavioral beliefs of teachers vary according to the disability conditions of the students. Results show that there is no significant effect of demographic factors on the beliefs of PE teachers. Quality of experience predicts positive beliefs. The study has important implication for teacher training, provision of equipment, and support from teacher assistants.
Stephen Silverman and Mara Manson
As a part of their doctoral education, students complete a dissertation. Examining these dissertations can provide one analysis of research in a field. The primary purpose of this study was to analyze all physical education dissertations with a teaching focus that were completed between 1985 and 1999. All possible dissertations were examined through the electronic version of Dissertation Abstracts International. For the teaching dissertations (n = 201), each abstract was coded for (a) research type, (b) research focus, (c) student variable measured, (d) observation used, (e) interview used, (f) other methods used, (g) population, (h) general methodology, and (i) statistics reported/used. Most research on teaching dissertations addressed issues related to teacher effectiveness and focused on motor skill learning and attitude. There was an increase in qualitative methods from those reported in a previous study (Silverman, 1987). While there were methodological advances, many dissertations still used methods that were not informed by the research methods literature.
B. Ann Boyce
The effects of three teaching styles (command, practice, and reciprocal) from Mosston’s Spectrum of Teaching Styles were investigated in terms of motor skill acquisition and retention of a selected shooting task. University students (N=135) enrolled in nine riflery classes were randomly assigned by class to one of three treatment groups. A 3×6 (Teaching styles × Sets of trials) ANCOVA, with repeated measures on the last factor and pretest performance as the covariate, revealed a significant group-by-trials interaction. Command and practice styles were significantly superior to the reciprocal style in terms of skill acquisition and retention. Discussion addresses not only previous research on Mosston’s styles but also the research in teacher effectiveness and selected motor-learning constructs.