This study was conducted to assess the level of stress and efficacy at the entry and exit of a traditional student-teaching experience in physical education. Significant positive changes during student teaching were illustrated on these stress variables: role ambiguity, role overload, role preparedness, and illness symptoms. No significant changes were made in personal teacher efficacy (PTE) and general teacher efficacy (GTE) during the course of the study. No significant relationships were found between the other dependent variables (gender, teaching level, prior field experiences) and stress/efficacy scores. Correlations were also reported between the majority of stress variables with personal teacher efficacy. Implications of the findings for student teachers and induction teachers are discussed.
Paul C. Paese and Steve Zinkgraf
B. Ann Boyce
The effects of three teaching styles (command, practice, and reciprocal) from Mosston’s Spectrum of Teaching Styles were investigated in terms of motor skill acquisition and retention of a selected shooting task. University students (N=135) enrolled in nine riflery classes were randomly assigned by class to one of three treatment groups. A 3×6 (Teaching styles × Sets of trials) ANCOVA, with repeated measures on the last factor and pretest performance as the covariate, revealed a significant group-by-trials interaction. Command and practice styles were significantly superior to the reciprocal style in terms of skill acquisition and retention. Discussion addresses not only previous research on Mosston’s styles but also the research in teacher effectiveness and selected motor-learning constructs.
Stephen Silverman and Mara Manson
As a part of their doctoral education, students complete a dissertation. Examining these dissertations can provide one analysis of research in a field. The primary purpose of this study was to analyze all physical education dissertations with a teaching focus that were completed between 1985 and 1999. All possible dissertations were examined through the electronic version of Dissertation Abstracts International. For the teaching dissertations (n = 201), each abstract was coded for (a) research type, (b) research focus, (c) student variable measured, (d) observation used, (e) interview used, (f) other methods used, (g) population, (h) general methodology, and (i) statistics reported/used. Most research on teaching dissertations addressed issues related to teacher effectiveness and focused on motor skill learning and attitude. There was an increase in qualitative methods from those reported in a previous study (Silverman, 1987). While there were methodological advances, many dissertations still used methods that were not informed by the research methods literature.
Gay L. Timken and Jeff McNamee
The purpose of this study was to gauge preservice physical education teachers’ perspectives during one physical activity pedagogy course, teaching outdoor and adventure education. Teacher belief, occupational socialization and experiential learning theories overlaid this work. Over three years 57 students (37 males; 20 females) participated in the course. Each student wrote four reflections during their term of enrollment based on semistructured questions regarding their own participation, thoughts on K-12 students, and teaching and learning in physical education. Reflections were analyzed using constant comparative methods. Three main themes emerged from the data: 1) fear, risk and challenge, (subthemes of skill and motivation; self-awareness); 2) lifetime activity; and 3) teaching physical education (subthemes of K-12 students; curriculum). Implications for physical education teacher education suggest the inclusion of novel physical activities that elicit strong emotional responses due to challenges with perceived and/or actual risk as a viable method for inducing belief change.
Athanasia Chatzipanteli, Nikolaos Digelidis and Athanasios G. Papaioannou
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of student-activated teaching styles through a specific intervention program on students’ self-regulation, lesson satisfaction, and motivation. Six hundred and one 7th grade students (318 boys and 283 girls), aged 13 years were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a comparison group. The teachers who taught the students assigned to the experimental group used student-activated teaching styles, and specifically the reciprocal, self-check, inclusion, guided discovery, convergent discovery, and divergent discovery styles. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the experimental group, compared with the comparison group, had higher scores in lesson satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and metacognitive activities, and lower scores in external motivation, and amotivation. The study revealed that going beyond the command and/or the practice style of teaching, PE teachers can enhance students’ metacognitive skills, lesson satisfaction and intrinsic motivation.
Iva Obrusnikova and Suzanna R. Dillon
As the first step of an instrument development, teaching challenges that occur when students with autism spectrum disorders are educated in general physical education were elicited using Goldfried and D’Zurilla’s (1969) behavioral-analytic model. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 43 certified physical educators (29 women and 14 men) using a demographic questionnaire and an elicitation questionnaire. Participants listed 225 teaching challenges, 46% related to cooperative, 31% to competitive, and 24% to individualistic learning situations. Teaching challenges were categorized into nine themes: inattentive and hyperactive behaviors, social impairment, emotional regulation difficulties, difficulties understanding and performing tasks, narrow focus and inflexible adherence to routines and structure, isolation by classmates, negative effects on classmates’ learning, and need for support.
Lijuan Wang, Jing Qi and Lin Wang
This study examined the behavioral beliefs of physical education (PE) teachers about teaching students with disabilities in their general PE (GPE) classes and to identify the factors that contribute to their beliefs. A total of 195 PE teachers from a region in eastern China were surveyed. Results of the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals With Disabilities-III survey indicate that although some teachers felt that including students with disabilities in GPE classes provides benefit for them, they were concerned about the practical difficulties of teaching students with disabilities in GPE classes, the lack of support, and the possible rejection of students with disabilities by their peers. Moreover, the behavioral beliefs of teachers vary according to the disability conditions of the students. Results show that there is no significant effect of demographic factors on the beliefs of PE teachers. Quality of experience predicts positive beliefs. The study has important implication for teacher training, provision of equipment, and support from teacher assistants.
Nicholas L. Holt, William B. Strean and Enrique García Bengoechea
There has been considerable debate regarding the delivery and outcomes of games experiences in physical education. In particular, the relative benefits of the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) approach have been compared to traditional skill-drill approaches to games teaching. However, many discussions of TGfU have focused on cognitive and psychomotor learning outcomes, neglecting the affective domain. The purpose of this article is to review TGfU research, to present an extended TGfU model, and to suggest new avenues for future research and practice. Future research directions include consideration of learning with respect to cognitive, behavioral, and affective characteristics.
Inez Rovegno, Weiyun Chen and John Todorovich
The purpose of this study was to describe four accomplished teachers’ enacted pedagogical content knowledge of teaching hand dribbling to third grade children. We aimed to investigate and make accessible the knowledge and wisdom of practicing teachers. We videotaped three sequential lessons of each teacher and conducted formal and informal interviews. Three themes emerged from a grounded analysis of the data: (a) approaching dribbling content as a network of connected movements and tactics, (b) refining movement patterns based on knowledge initially acquired in younger grades, and (c) teaching the cognitive processes (learning orientation, self-regulation, movement and tactical analysis and critique, and making decisions) embedded in and relevant to lesson dribbling activities.
Mats M. Hordvik, Ann MacPhail and Lars T. Ronglan
In this study, we articulate and share our knowledge and understanding of teaching and learning Sport Education in physical education teacher education (PETE): (a) How did the PETE faculty member experience teaching about teaching Sport Education? and (b) How did the PSTs experience learning about teaching Sport Education?
One PETE faculty member (the first author) and twelve PSTs took part in a university Sport Education unit. Data were collected through the PETE faculty member’s open-ended reflective diary and focus groups with three PST teams.
The PETE faculty member and PSTs experienced various challenges such as bridging theory and practice when learning about teaching Sport Education and articulating the “what”, “how” and “why” when teaching about teaching Sport Education.
Sport Education is a complex curriculum and instructional model, encouraging further interrogation of the theoretical implications of the model.