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Robynne M. Gravenhorst and Charles B. Walter

Apraxia is a complex movement disorder that frequently occurs following left hemisphere stroke. Studies on patients with apraxia constitute an especially interesting body of literature for motor control researchers who seek to understand the cognitive mechanisms involved in the voluntary control of movement. Reciprocally, among apraxia researchers, great interest exists concerning the ways in which methods and theory from the field of motor control can be brought to bear in the clinical and empirical evaluation of this disorder. Here we will review representative evidence on the etiology, frequency, and assessment of apraxia, and suggest how research methods and theories from the field of motor control can be applied to, and also benefit from, a deeper understanding of apraxia. Parallels are proposed between the major cognitive models of apraxia and motor control to facilitate translation of terminology and concepts, and to enrich the emerging dialogue between these two complementary research domains.

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Melanie R. Keats and Nicole Culos-Reed

The present study examined the efficacy of a theory-based intervention designed to positively influence physical activity (PA) behavior in a group of pediatric cancer survivors. Ten survivors participated in a 16-week PA intervention that targeted the main theoretical tenets of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Survivors were followed over a course of 1 year and completed measures of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, intentions for PA, and self-reported PA behavior at five different times. While the magnitude of change varied across the key theoretical constructs, it appears that the intervention had a small yet meaningful impact, particularly for overall behavioral intentions. Overall, this study provides preliminary data to suggest that the TPB may be a viable framework from which to build interventions for pediatric cancer survivors. Future research will be required to further identify and target the key elements and theoretical constructs within a behavioral intervention.

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Joanne Thatcher, John Kerr, Kristy Amies and Melissa Day


Few studies have examined psychological and emotional processes in injury rehabilitation from a longitudinal, theoretically framed perspective.


This study explored the applicability of Reversal Theory to examine these processes.


University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK.


Three severely injured athletes; two were female (karate and judo) and one was male (hockey), aged 20 to 28.

Main Outcome Measures:

Fortnightly interviews after participant’s initial consultation with a sports therapist, until complete physical rehabilitation.


Supported the use of Reversal Theory in this context (eg, as a means of understanding the origins of athletes’ emotional responses to injury and changes in these responses throughout rehabilitation).


Suggestions for future research are made (eg, examining the consequences of emotional and metamotivational states for athlete behavior and recovery outcomes during rehabilitation).

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Byoung Jun Kim and Diane L. Gill

This study examined the predictions of goal perspective theory within Korean youth sport. Middle-school-aged athletes (244 males and 90 females) completed the Korean versions of Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). Both task and ego orientations were positively correlated with intrinsic motivation. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that overall fit for the modified versions of the TEOSQ (10 items) and the IMI (13 items) were marginal. Gender × Grade (2 × 3) MANOVAs revealed that males were higher than females on two dimensions of intrinsic motivation (perceived competence and effort/importance). Canonical correlation analyses indicated that both task and ego orientation scores corresponded to the dimensions of the IMI. These findings are discussed in terms of cross-cultural generality and cultural specificity of the goal perspective theory.

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April Tripp, Ron French and Claudine Sherrill

Contact theory was examined by comparing total and subscale attitude scores of children toward peers with disabilities (physical, learning, behavioral) in integrated (contact) and segregated (noncontact) physical education settings. Subjects were 455 children ages 9 to 12 years; class size was 40 to 45. Data were collected using the Peer Attitudes Toward the Handicapped Scale (PATHS). ANOVA on total attitude scores indicated gender differences, with girls having more positive attitudes, but no difference between settings. MANOVA on subscale attitude scores revealed gender differences, favoring girls, only on the physical disability subscale. Setting significantly affected attitudes toward physical and behavioral disabilities but not learning disabilities. Children in the integrated setting had significantly more positive attitudes toward peers with behavioral disabilities than those in the segregated setting, but the reverse was true toward peers with physical disabilities. Contact theory was supported by this research for only behavioral disability.

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Jacqueline M. Del Giorno, Eric E. Hall, Kevin C. O’Leary, Walter R. Bixby and Paul C. Miller

The purpose of this study was to test the transient hypofrontality theory (Dietrich, 2003) by examining the influence of exercise intensity on executive control processes during and following submaximal exercise. Thirty participants (13 female) exercised for 30 min at ventilatory threshold (VT) or at 75% of VT. The Contingent Continuous Performance Task (CPT) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were used as measures of executive control. They were administered before, during, immediately following, and 20 min after exercise. An increase in false alarms and unique errors (p ≤ .05) occurred during both conditions. False alarms for the CPT and total and perseverative errors for the WCST remained elevated immediately following exercise at VT, but not at exercise below VT (p ≤ .01). The decreased executive control function during exercise can be explained by the transient hypofrontality theory. Following VT, executive control performance remained poor possibly owing to an additional amount of time the brain needs to return to homeostasis following intense exercise.

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E. Jane Watkinson, Sean A. Dwyer and A. Brian Nielsen

Inclusion in activity at recess can have important implications for the health and for the physical, social, and cognitive development of children, according to play theorists (Pellegrini, 1995). This study examined whether children described their decisions (and those of fictitious others) to engage in recess activities in achievement terms consistent with expectancy-value theory (Eccles, Wigfield & Schiefele, 1998). Ten Grade 3 children with different patterns of recess engagement did confirm that attainment, interest, utility, and cost values were salient to decisions to participate. Children distinguished among value components, and confirmed that expectancies and values contributed to activity choices, providing support for the conceptualization of recess as an achievement setting in which expectancy-value theory applies.

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Thomas R. George

Using path analytic techniques, the causal relationships in Bandura's model of self-efficacy were examined in a field setting. Male intercollegiate and interscholastic baseball players (N = 53) completed self-report measures over a nine-game period during the baseball season. Perceptions of self-efficacy, competitive state anxiety, effort expenditure, and objective hitting performance were measured. Moderate support for Bandura's model was found in that higher performances predicted stronger percepts of efficacy in six games, and lower levels of somatic and cognitive anxiety were associated with stronger self-efficacy beliefs in seven games. In turn, stronger self-efficacy predicted greater effort in six games and higher hitting performance in five games. Results are discussed in relation to the ecological validity of previous causal examinations of self-efficacy theory, as well as the utility of self-efficacy theory as a framework for investigating the self-confidence-performance relationship.

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Heather A. Hausenblas, Albert V. Carron and Diane E. Mack

The primary purpose of this study was to use meta-analysis to statistically examine the utility of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for the explanation and prediction of exercise behavior. The results showed that the effect size for the relationships (a) between intention and exercise behavior, attitude and intention, attitude and exercise behavior, perceived behavioral control and intention, and perceived behavioral control and exercise behavior was large; (b) between subjective norm and intention was moderate; and (c) between subjective norm and exercise behavior was zero-order. The results also supported the conclusions that (a) TPB is superior to TRA in accounting for exercise behavior, (b) there is no differences in the ability to predict exercise behavior from proximal and distal measures of intention, and (c) expectation is a better predictor of exercise behavior than intention.

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Jiling Liu, Ping Xiang, Jihye Lee and Weidong Li

The goal of physical education is to instill physical literacy within students. As an important motivation framework, achievement goal theory has been widely used to understand and explain students’ cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. In this paper, we reviewed studies examining achievement goals and outcomes in K-12 physical education settings. First, we provide a brief review of the historical development of the achievement goal theoretical models (the dichotomous model, the trichotomous model, the 2 × 2 model, and the 3 × 2 model). Then, we synthesize consequences, antecedents, and interactive factors of each achievement goal construct as well as the influences of gender, age, and culture on students’ achievement goals. Finally, we discuss implications for practice and future research. We hope our review can inform physical educators and researchers and assist the application of achievement goal theory into practice.