Structural equation modeling was used to test an extended version of the Kendzierski, Furr, and Schiavoni (1998) Physical Activity Self-Definition Model. A revised model using data from 622 runners fit the data well. Cross-validation indices supported the revised model, and this model also provided a good fit to data from 397 cyclists. Partial invariance was found across activities. In both samples, perceived commitment and perceived ability had direct effects on self-definition, and perceived wanting, perceived trying, and enjoyment had indirect effects. The contribution of perceived ability to self-definition did not differ across activities. Implications concerning the original model, indirect effects, skill salience, and the role of context in self-definition are discussed.
Deborah Kendzierski and Mara S. Morganstein
Brendan Dwyer and Yongjae Kim
The contemporary sport fan has the ability to consume spectator sport through several means including event attendance, television and radio broadcasts, print publications, and Internet applications. Recently, an ancillary sport service, termed fantasy sports, has become one of the most popular activities among sport fans. As a result, the business of fantasy sports is booming. This study examined motivational dimensions underlying fantasy football participation from a Uses and Gratifications perspective. Utilizing Churchill’s (1979) five-step method for developing quality marketing measures, this study identified and validated three motivational dimensions: entertainment/escape, competition, and social interaction. The results suggest a pattern of fantasy football participation that is more purposeful and active than traditional media use. Discussed are the gambling associations, future research opportunities, and suggestions for developing fantasy football participation into a more creative and interactive marketing communication tool.
Paul Rowe, Hans van der Mars, Joel Schuldheisz and Susan Fox
This study was conducted to validate the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) for measuring physical activity levels of high-school students. Thirty-five students (21 girls and 14 boys from grades 9-12) completed a standardized protocol including lying, sitting, standing, walking, running, curl-ups, and push-ups. Heart rates and Energy Expenditure, that is, oxygen uptake, served as concurrent validity criteria. Results indicate that SOFIT discriminates accurately among high-school students’ sedentary behaviors (i.e., lying down, sitting, standing) and moderate to vigorous physical activity behavior and is recommended for use in research and assessment of physical activity levels in physical education classes for this age group. Implications for use of SOFIT by both researchers and teachers in physical education are described, as well.
Matthew T. Mahar, Gregory J. Welk, David A. Rowe, Dana J. Crotts and Kerry L. McIver
The purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate a regression model to estimate VO2peak from PACER performance in 12- to 14-year-old males and females.
A sample of 135 participants had VO2peak measured during a maximal treadmill test and completed the PACER 20-m shuttle run. The sample was randomly split into validation (n = 90) and cross-validation (n = 45) samples. The validation sample was used to develop the regression equation to estimate VO2peak from PACER laps, gender, and body mass.
The multiple correlation (R) was .66 and standard error of estimate (SEE) was 6.38 ml·kg−1·min−1. Accuracy of the model was confirmed on the cross-validation sample. The regression equation developed on the total sample was: VO2peak = 47.438 + (PACER*0.142) + (Gender[m=1, f=0]*5.134) − (body mass [kg]*0.197), R = .65, SEE = 6.38 ml·kg–1·min–1.
The model developed in this study was more accurate than the Leger et al. model and allows easy conversion of PACER laps to VO2peak.
Katrina D. DuBose, Sandra Edwards, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Jared P. Reis and Martha L. Slattery
Historical physical activity (PA) questionnaires assess relationships between past PA and chronic diseases. The 4-Corner’s Historical Physical Activity Questionnaire (HPAQ) was validated in 78 middle-age women.
In 1996 and 1998, women kept PA records (PAR) for four consecutive days while wearing Caltrac accelerometers. In 2001, the same women recalled their past PA levels using the HPAQ. PA levels from the HPAQ were compared to PARs and the Caltrac. Race-adjusted Spearman correlations determined validity.
Low to modest correlations existed between PA (min/wk and MET-min/wk) from the HPAQ and PARs for moderate (r = 0.16 and 0.14, respectively), vigorous PA (r = 0.26 and 0.27, respectively; P < 0.05) and moderate-vigorous PA (r = 0.20 and 0.17, respectively). Moderate and moderate-vigorous, but not vigorous PA was positively related to energy expenditure expressed as kilocalories (r = 0.23, P < 0.05 and 0.22, −0.03, respectively) or PA volume (MET-min/wk) (r = 0.29, 0.29, P < 0.05 and 0.10, respectively).
The HPAQ can produce valid estimates of women’s past moderate and vigorous PA levels.
Patricia W. Bauer, James M. Pivarnik, Deborah L. Feltz, Nigel Paneth and Christopher J. Womack
Physical activity (PA) is an important component of a healthy pregnancy and postpartum period. Since prospective PA monitoring throughout gestation is difficult, a valid PA recall tool would be of significant benefit to researchers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of women to recall their physical activity performed during pregnancy and postpartum, 6 years later.
Thirty women participated in an historical PA recall study. Pregnancy PA was monitored carefully via assisted physical activity diary (PAD) 6 years before the current investigation. A Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ) was used to assess current and past pregnancy PA. The MAQ was administered for each time period in the order of most distant past to most current. Leisure time energy expenditure values (kcal/kg/day) calculated from the PAD and the MAQ were compared.
MAQ energy expenditure values showed good positive relationships with PAD measures at 20 weeks gestation (r = .57; P < .01), 32 weeks gestation (r = .85; P < .01), and 12 weeks postpartum (r = .86; P < .01). Correlations found were similar to those from previous PA recall and MAQ validation studies using nonpregnant populations.
The MAQ is an appropriate tool to assess pregnancy and postpartum PA in women 6 years postpartum.
Steven Baumann and Keith Henschen
In recent years, the academic standards of the collegiate student athlete have become a popular subject within the sociology of sport. In January 1983, the top competitive division of the NCAA voted to make more stringent the academic standards for participants in Division I intercollegiate sports. This was known as Proposal 48, and although the vote was 2 to 1 in favor of it, much criticism was also voiced. This study examines the relationship between the American College Testing Program (ACT) and actual grade point average (GPA) for 753 male and female athletes at the University of Utah during a 10-year period. A secondary purpose was to determine the predictive validity of a predicted GPA formula (PGPA) and high school grade point average (HSGPA) as estimates of actual GPA. Other purposes were to determine the correlation of ACT, PGPA, and HSGPA with regard to gender, race, and sport. Pearson product-moment correlations were utilized to establish relationships between ACT scores, PGPA, and HSGPA with actual GPA. A multiple correlation coefficient was computed and a regression equation was established. In addition, a cross-validation was performed on the existing data. Results indicated that an equation combining ACT and HSGPA is the best predictor for Caucasians, while HSGPA alone is the best predictor for non-Caucasians. Factors other than ACT scores appear to be better predictors of academic success for the student-athlete, thus casting doubt upon the validity of Proposal 48 for the NCAA.
David P. McKee, Colin A.G. Boreham, Marie H. Murphy and Alan M. Nevill
Activity measurement using a uniaxial pedometer was validated against behavioral observation using the Children’s Activity Rating Scale (CARS) in 30 three- to four-year-old children in a nursery school setting. Correlations were calculated for individual children, whereas the relationship for the total group was investigated using multilevel linear regression. The mean counts for boys and girls for the Digiwalker™ were 66.8 (± 64.0) and 47.4 (± 61.3; p < .01) steps per 3 minutes, respectively, whereas the mean CARS scores for boys and girls were 1.8 (± 0.6) and 1.6 (± 0.6; p < .01), respectively. Within-child correlations for CARS versus Digiwalker counts ranged from 0.64 to 0.95 with a median value of 0.86, whereas the multilevel analysis provided strong evidence of a relationship between CARS and Digiwalker (all p < .001). Data from the current study show that gender differences in physical levels exist in very young children and support the utility of the Digiwalker pedometer for assessing physical activity in this age group.
Bo Fernhall, A. Lynn Millar, Kenneth H. Pitetti, Terri Hensen and Mathew D. Vukovsch
We cross validated the 20-m shuttle run test of aerobic capacity in children and adolescents with mild and moderate mental retardation (MR) using the population specific formula of Fernhall et al. (1998). Nine boys and 8 girls (age = 13.7 yr) completed a maximal treadmill protocol (measured V̇O2peak) and a 20-m shuttle run (predicted V̇O2peak). The measured peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) was 39.4 ml kg-1 min-1. The relationship between measured and predicted V̇O2peak was r = .86 with an SEE of 6.2 ml kg-1 min-1. Multiple regression and Bland-Altman analyses showed that there was little bias, but the Bland-Altman analysis indicated highly variable limits of agreement (Bland & Altman 1986). Thus, the traditional approach (regression analysis) to concurrent validity revealed that the 20-m shuttle run is a valid indicator of V̇O2peak in these participants. The accuracy of prediction (Bland & Altman, 1986), however, was lower than expected in a population without MR.
Martin E. Block
This paper describes the development and validation of the Children’s Attitudes Toward Integrated Physical Education–Revised (CAIPE-R) inventory, an inventory designed to assess attitudes of children without disabilities toward including peers with disabilities in regular physical education. The CAIPE–R inventory includes a description of a student with disabilities, followed by seven statements regarding including a child with disabilities in regular physical education and five statements regarding specific adaptations to a team sport that would foster inclusion. Users respond to each statement on a 4-point Likert scale. Construct validity using factor analysis, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability was determined on a sample of 44 sixth graders. The CAIPE was revised (CAIPE-R) and given to a second set of subjects (n = 208). Results indicated that the CAIPE-R was a valid and reliable instrument for measuring attitudes of children without disabilities toward including children with disabilities in physical education. Preliminary data on children’s attitudes toward including a student with disabilities in regular physical education are also presented.