The purpose of this study is to report on the development and validation of a game-understanding test procedure in badminton. A basic video-based test was constructed, and primary school children (ages 9–10 and 11–12 years, N = 120) served as participants. An advanced test was designed to detect differences between national level junior badminton players (11–14 years, n = 19) and primary and secondary school children (11–14 years, n = 45). The video-based tests consisted of 15 to 19 different sequences that were simulations of actual offensive and defensive game situations. In every sequence, players were to solve tactical problems by selecting appropriate solutions and arguments for their decisions. Validity and reliability of the tests were examined through these groups, and the findings suggest that the test procedure developed provides a valid and reliable method for assessing game understanding in badminton.
Minna T. Blomqvist, Pekka Luhtanen, Lauri Laakso and Esko Keskinen
Edward F. Etzel Jr.
Information is presented on the development and validation of a unique multidimensional, sport-specific model of attention among 71 world-class and/or potential world-class international rifle shooters. It was postulated that attention possesses five relatively independent subcomponent factors: capacity, duration, flexibility, intensivity, and selectivity. A 25-item, five-subscale questionnaire, the Riflery Attention Questionnaire (RAQ), was systematically developed utilizing Goldberg's intuitive-rational strategy as well as Jackson's general test-item development approach. Factor analysis and item analyses performed on each subscale generally supported the factor integrity of the model. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was also conducted to determine the extent to which subjects' RAQ responses predicted their shooting performance. A low positive relationship between the two was noted.
Xiaofen Deng Keating and Stephen Silverman
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Physical Education Teacher Attitudes Toward Fitness Tests Scale (PETAFTS) produces reliable and valid scores. There were 4 stages and 4 sets of participants in the development of the PETAFTS. First, the domains of attitude were defined and cognitive and affective components were developed, organized, and validated. In the second stage, 134 full-time physical education teachers participated in a pilot study and PETAFTS was revised based on the information obtained. In the third stage, 28 teacher educators served on an expert panel and organized the items into domain areas. In the final stage, 322 physical education teachers from 10 states tested the revised PETAFTS. Based on the results, the PETAFTS was shortened by deleting and combining some of the items in subdomains; this resulted in a 16-item final version that, according to the indices, generates reliable and valid scores.
Jing Dong Liu and Pak-kwong Chung
The current study presents the development process and initial validation of a measure designed for assessing psychological needs thwarting (frustration) in a secondary school physical education context (Psychological Needs Thwarting Scale in Physical Education, PNTSPE). Secondary school students (grades 7–9) from Hong Kong (N = 1258) were invited to participate in three studies. In Study 1, item generation and initial content validity of the PNTSPE were achieved. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the measure was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency reliabilities of the subscales were also examined. In Study 3, the reliability and validity of the scores derived from the PNTSPE were further examined in an independent sample. Overall, the findings from the three studies provided initial psychometric evidence for the PNTSPE and suggested that the PNTSPE could be used as a valid and reliable measure to assess Hong Kong secondary school students’ psychological needs thwarting in physical education.
Brendan Dwyer and Yongjae Kim
The contemporary sport fan has the ability to consume spectator sport through several means including event attendance, television and radio broadcasts, print publications, and Internet applications. Recently, an ancillary sport service, termed fantasy sports, has become one of the most popular activities among sport fans. As a result, the business of fantasy sports is booming. This study examined motivational dimensions underlying fantasy football participation from a Uses and Gratifications perspective. Utilizing Churchill’s (1979) five-step method for developing quality marketing measures, this study identified and validated three motivational dimensions: entertainment/escape, competition, and social interaction. The results suggest a pattern of fantasy football participation that is more purposeful and active than traditional media use. Discussed are the gambling associations, future research opportunities, and suggestions for developing fantasy football participation into a more creative and interactive marketing communication tool.
Stewart A. Vella, Lindsay G. Oades and Trevor P. Crowe
This paper describes the validation of The Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory (DTLI) within a participation youth sports context. Three hundred and twenty-two athletes aged between 11 and 18 years completed the DTLI. Using a confirmatory factor analysis, the DTLI yielded an underlying factor structure that fell short of cut-off criteria for adjudging model fit. Subsequent theory-driven changes were made to the DTLI by removing the ‘high performance expectations’ subscale. Further data-driven changes were also made on the basis of high item-factor cross-loadings. The revised version of the DTLI was subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and proved to be a good fit for the obtained data. Consequently, a Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory for Youth Sport has been suggested for use within the participation youth sport context that contains 22 items, and retains six subscales.
Martin E. Block, Yeshayahu Hutzler, Sharon Barak and Aija Klavina
The purpose was to validate a self-efficacy (SE) instrument toward including students with disability in physical education (PE). Three scales referring to intellectual disabilities (ID), physical disabilities (PD), or visual impairments (VI) were administered to 486 physical education teacher education (PETE) majors. The sample was randomly split, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA, respectively) were conducted. After deleting items that did not meet inclusion criteria, EFA item loadings ranged from 0.53 to 0.91, and Cronbach’s alpha reliability was high (for ID = .86, PD = .90, and VI = .92). CFA showed that the ID scale demonstrated good goodness-of-fit, whereas in the PD and in the VI scales demonstrated moderate fit. Thus, the content and construct validity of the instrument was supported.
Roberta E. Rikli and C. Jessie Jones
Preventing or delaying the onset of physical frailty is an increasingly important goal because more individuals are living well into their 8th and 9th decades. We describe the development and validation of a functional fitness test battery that can assess the physiologic parameters that support physical mobility in older adults. The procedures involved in the test development were (a) developing a theoretical framework for the test items, (b) establishing an advisory panel of experts, (c) determining test selection criteria, (d) selecting the test items, and (e) establishing test reliability and validity. The complete battery consists of 6 items (and one alternative) designed to assess the physiologic parameters associated with independent functioning—lower and upper body strength, aerobic endurance, lower and upper body flexibility, and agility/dynamic balance. We also assessed body mass index as an estimate of body composition. We concluded that the tests met the established criteria for scientific rigor and feasibility for use in common community settings.
Kent C. Kowalski and Peter R.E. Crocker
Two studies reported the development and validation of the Coping Function Questionnaire (CFQ) for adolescent sport participants. The purpose of the first study was to develop the CFQ and conduct preliminary item and scale analyses. The result was an 18-item CFQ, which assessed problem-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidance coping function. In the second study, confirmatory factor analysis with data from 344 male and 339 female adolescent sport participants showed the CFQ measurement model to be acceptable for both genders. Simultaneous group analysis demonstrated gender invariance for the CFQ measurement model. Convergent and divergent validity was supported by correlations between the CFQ and select coping scales from the COPE, the sport-modified COPE, and Life Situations Inventory. The CFQ appears to be a promising step toward measurement of coping function in adolescent sport samples.
Rachel Arnold, David Fletcher and Kevin Daniels
The series of related studies reported here describe the development and validation of the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP). In Study 1, an expert and usability panel examined the content validity and applicability of an initial item pool. The resultant 96 items were analyzed with exploratory factor analyses in Study 2, with the factorial structure comprising 5 factors (viz., Goals and Development, Logistics and Operations, Team and Culture, Coaching, Selection) and 33 items. Using confirmatory factor analyses, Studies 3 and 4 found support for the 5-factor structure. Study 4 also provided evidence for the OSI-SP’s concurrent validity and invariance across different groups. The OSI-SP is proposed as a valid and reliable measure of the organizational stressors encountered by sport performers.