occupational sitting time within office environments. 5 Interventions aimed at reducing sitting or increasing PA, depend on valid and reliable measures of these behaviours. 6 Retrospective self-report methods of assessing these behaviors rely on participants to recall past experience (within some defined
Katie Weatherson, Lira Yun, Kelly Wunderlich, Eli Puterman and Guy Faulkner
James Wright, Thomas Walker, Scott Burnet and Simon A. Jobson
reliability and validity of the PowerTap P1 pedals have been investigated between 100 and 500 W at 70, 85, and 100 rpm. 7 These authors reported that the P1 pedals slightly underestimated the SRM Powermeter by 2 to 7 W but suggested that the pedals were reliable and valid, concluding that they were a cost
Paul M. Vanderburgh
To assess the validity of Boston Marathon qualifying (BMQ) standards for men and women.
Percent differences between BMQ and current world records (WR) by sex and age group were computed. WR was chosen as the criterion comparison because it is not confounded by intensity, body composition, lifestyle, or environmental factors. A consistent difference across age groups would indicate an appropriate slope of the age-vs-BMQ curve. Inconsistent differences were corrected by adjusting BMQ standards to achieve a uniform percentage difference from WR.
BMQ standards for men were consistently ~50% slower than WR (mean 51.5% ± 1.4%, range 49.6–54.4%), thus demonstrating acceptable validity. However, BMQ standards for women indicated convergence with WR as age increased (mean 45.8% ± 13.7%, range 17.5–58.9%). The women’s BMQ standards were revised to yield a consistent 50% deviation from WR across age groups (50.9% ± 0.8%, range 49.2–52.2%). Applied to all 16,773 women in the 2012 Chicago Marathon, the suggested BMQ standards would lead to a 4.90% success rate, compared with 8.39% using the current standard. This compared with a 9.6% success rate for all 20,681 men of the same race.
The current women’s BMQ standards appear too lenient for women 18–54 y and too strict for women 55–80 y but yield equitable gender representation in percentage of qualifiers. The current men’s and suggested women’s BMQ standards appear valid but would lead to approximately 40% fewer women achieving BMQ standards.
Michael J. LaMonte, I-Min Lee, Eileen Rillamas-Sun, John Bellettiere, Kelly R. Evenson, David M. Buchner, Chongzhi Di, Cora E. Lewis, Dori E. Rosenberg, Marcia L. Stefanick and Andrea Z. LaCroix
requiring ≥3 METs (e.g., level walking at 1.5–2.0 mph). Questionnaire Measures We were interested in comparing accelerometer measures with self-reported measures from three widely used questionnaires that have been tested for reliability and validity: the WHI PA questionnaire ( Meyer, Evenson, Morimoto
Michael Wilkinson, Damon Leedale-Brown and Edward M. Winter
This study examined the validity of a squash-specific test designed to assess endurance capability and aerobic power.
Eight squash players and eight runners performed, in a counterbalanced order, incremental treadmill (TT) and squash-specific (ST) tests to volitional exhaustion. Breath-by-breath oxygen uptake was determined by a portable analyzer and heart rate was assessed telemetrically. Time to exhaustion was recorded.
Independent t tests revealed longer time to exhaustion for squash players on the ST than runners (775 ± 103 vs. 607 ± 81 s; P = .003) but no difference between squash players and runners in maximal oxygen uptake ( Vo2max) or maximum heart rate (HRmax). Runners exercised longer on the TT (521 ± 135 vs. 343 ± 115 s; P = .01) and achieved higher Vo2max than squash players (58.6 ± 7.5 vs. 49.6 ± 7.3 mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .03), with no group difference in HRmax. Paired t tests showed squash players achieved higher Vo2max on the ST than the TT (52.2 ± 7.1 vs. 49.6 ± 7.3 mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .02). The Vo2max and HRmax of runners did not differ between tests, nor did the HRmax of squash players. ST and TT Vo2max correlated highly in squash players and runners (r = .94, P < .001; r = .88, P = .003).
The ST discriminated endurance performance between squash players and runners and elicited higher Vo2max in squash players than a nonspecifc test. The results suggest that the ST is a valid assessment of Vo2max and endurance capability in squash players.
Matti Hyvärinen, Sarianna Sipilä, Janne Kulmala, Harto Hakonen, Tuija H. Tammelin, Urho M. Kujala, Vuokko Kovanen and Eija K. Laakkonen
in epidemiologic studies due to their relatively low cost and ease of implementation regardless of their limited reliability and validity due to the potential response bias and issues related to recalling the physical activity ( Kowalski, Rhodes, Naylor, Tuokko, & MacDonald, 2012 ; Shephard, 2003
Carlos Augusto Kalva-Filho, Argyris Toubekis, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, João Paulo Loures, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos and Marcelo Papoti
minimum test and, consequently, its comparisons with other aerobic parameters (eg, critical velocity) ( 17 ). Although the lactate minimum test has been widely applied in free-swimming ( 5 , 14 , 17 , 26 ), at present, only one study has tested the validity of this procedure in tethered swimming
Justin W.Y. Lee, Ming-Jing Cai, Patrick S.H. Yung and Kai-Ming Chan
user-friendly, the measurement largely depends on the skills and strength of the operator. 10 , 14 Especially for the hamstring strength endurance measurement, the operator will also fatigue during the trial. 5 For others on-field hamstring strength testing methods, the concurrent validity are yet to
Kieran J. Marston, Belinda M. Brown, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Sabine Bird, Linda K. Wijaya, Shaun Y. M. Teo, Ralph N. Martins and Jeremiah J. Peiffer
–40 continuous min; Jakicic, Winters, Lang, & Wing, 1999 ). It is, therefore, important to explore the acute response in BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF using a high-intensity, yet, ecologically valid, resistance exercise regimen in older adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the acute response in BDNF
Rheanna Bulten, Sara King-Dowling and John Cairney
an especially relevant component of fitness in childhood, with evidence that it is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease risk in childhood independent of cardiorespiratory fitness levels ( 21 ). Despite a growing body of work on MF in children, there remains a lack of valid and reliable