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Jonathan S. Akins, Nicholas R. Heebner, Mita Lovalekar and Timothy C. Sell

Ankle ligament sprains are the most common injury in soccer. The high rate of these injuries demonstrates a need for novel data collection methodologies. Therefore, soccer shoes and shin guards were instrumented with inertial sensors to measure ankle joint kinematics in the field. The purpose of this study was to assess test-retest reliability and concurrent criterion validity of a kinematic assessment using the instrumented soccer equipment. Twelve soccer athletes performed athletic maneuvers in the laboratory and field during 2 sessions. In the laboratory, ankle joint kinematics were simultaneously measured with the instrumented equipment and a conventional motion analysis system. Reliability was assessed using ICC and validity was assessed using correlation coefficients and RMSE. While our design criteria of good test-retest reliability was not supported (ICC > .80), sagittal plane ICCs were mostly fair to good and similar to motion analysis results; and sagittal plane data were valid (r = .90−.98; RMSE < 5°). Frontal and transverse plane data were not valid (r < .562; RMSE > 3°). Our results indicate that the instrumented soccer equipment can be used to measure sagittal plane ankle joint kinematics. Biomechanical studies support the utility of sagittal plane measures for lower extremity injury prevention.

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Javier S. Morales, Carl Foster, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

 > .99) between the power output displayed by this cycle ergometer and a valid power meter, the SRM system (Schoberer Rad Messtechnik [SRM], Jülich, Germany), 8 during a laboratory test (mean difference between Cardgirus and SRM = 1 [2] W). Moreover, the physiological response to a laboratory test with

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Farid Farhani, Hamid Rajabi, Raoof Negaresh, Ajmol Ali, Sadegh Amani Shalamzari and Julien S. Baker

popularity of futsal is rising with regard to the specificity of motor patterns 6 and different demands to those of soccer performance 2 , 5 , there is still lack of studies reporting a special, valid, and reliable holistic futsal test. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to design a futsal

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Jonathan P. Norris, Jamie Highton and Craig Twist

possessing acceptable validity and reliability for locomotive demands, previous attempts to simulate the match demands of rugby league have resulted in similar heart rate (HR) responses but greater relative distance and high-speed running compared with match play. 5 The replication of collisions in the

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Robson Dias Scoz, Cesar F. Amorim, Bruno O.A. Mazziotti, Rubens A. Da Silva, Edgar R. Vieira, Alexandre D. Lopes and Ronaldo E.C.D. Gabriel

the injury. 23 In this scenario, maintaining joint stability would have less financial and social impact. 24 The objective of this research was to evaluate the diagnostic validity of the isokinetic test to detect ACL partial tears. Our hypothesis is that, as in total rupture of the ACL, changes in

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Michael J. LaMonte, I-Min Lee, Eileen Rillamas-Sun, John Bellettiere, Kelly R. Evenson, David M. Buchner, Chongzhi Di, Cora E. Lewis, Dori E. Rosenberg, Marcia L. Stefanick and Andrea Z. LaCroix

requiring ≥3 METs (e.g., level walking at 1.5–2.0 mph). Questionnaire Measures We were interested in comparing accelerometer measures with self-reported measures from three widely used questionnaires that have been tested for reliability and validity: the WHI PA questionnaire ( Meyer, Evenson, Morimoto

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Toshimasa Yanai, Akifumi Matsuo, Akira Maeda, Hiroki Nakamoto, Mirai Mizutani, Hiroaki Kanehisa and Tetsuo Fukunaga

developed a force measurement system embedded under a soil-filled mound. 5 This system may be installed in a baseball field and used for monitoring pitching techniques in real-time during practice and game situations. It is, therefore, worthwhile to list reliable and valid biomechanical parameters

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Paul M. Vanderburgh


To assess the validity of Boston Marathon qualifying (BMQ) standards for men and women.


Percent differences between BMQ and current world records (WR) by sex and age group were computed. WR was chosen as the criterion comparison because it is not confounded by intensity, body composition, lifestyle, or environmental factors. A consistent difference across age groups would indicate an appropriate slope of the age-vs-BMQ curve. Inconsistent differences were corrected by adjusting BMQ standards to achieve a uniform percentage difference from WR.


BMQ standards for men were consistently ~50% slower than WR (mean 51.5% ± 1.4%, range 49.6–54.4%), thus demonstrating acceptable validity. However, BMQ standards for women indicated convergence with WR as age increased (mean 45.8% ± 13.7%, range 17.5–58.9%). The women’s BMQ standards were revised to yield a consistent 50% deviation from WR across age groups (50.9% ± 0.8%, range 49.2–52.2%). Applied to all 16,773 women in the 2012 Chicago Marathon, the suggested BMQ standards would lead to a 4.90% success rate, compared with 8.39% using the current standard. This compared with a 9.6% success rate for all 20,681 men of the same race.


The current women’s BMQ standards appear too lenient for women 18–54 y and too strict for women 55–80 y but yield equitable gender representation in percentage of qualifiers. The current men’s and suggested women’s BMQ standards appear valid but would lead to approximately 40% fewer women achieving BMQ standards.

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Katie Weatherson, Lira Yun, Kelly Wunderlich, Eli Puterman and Guy Faulkner

occupational sitting time within office environments. 5 Interventions aimed at reducing sitting or increasing PA, depend on valid and reliable measures of these behaviours. 6 Retrospective self-report methods of assessing these behaviors rely on participants to recall past experience (within some defined

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James Wright, Thomas Walker, Scott Burnet and Simon A. Jobson

reliability and validity of the PowerTap P1 pedals have been investigated between 100 and 500 W at 70, 85, and 100 rpm. 7 These authors reported that the P1 pedals slightly underestimated the SRM Powermeter by 2 to 7 W but suggested that the pedals were reliable and valid, concluding that they were a cost