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Farid Farhani, Hamid Rajabi, Raoof Negaresh, Ajmol Ali, Sadegh Amani Shalamzari and Julien S. Baker

popularity of futsal is rising with regard to the specificity of motor patterns 6 and different demands to those of soccer performance 2 , 5 , there is still lack of studies reporting a special, valid, and reliable holistic futsal test. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to design a futsal

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Robson Dias Scoz, Cesar F. Amorim, Bruno O.A. Mazziotti, Rubens A. Da Silva, Edgar R. Vieira, Alexandre D. Lopes and Ronaldo E.C.D. Gabriel

the injury. 23 In this scenario, maintaining joint stability would have less financial and social impact. 24 The objective of this research was to evaluate the diagnostic validity of the isokinetic test to detect ACL partial tears. Our hypothesis is that, as in total rupture of the ACL, changes in

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Tiago V. Barreira, Robert M. Brouillette, Heather C. Foil, Jeffrey N. Keller and Catrine Tudor-Locke

The purpose of this study was to compare the steps/d derived from the ActiGraph GT3X+ using the manufacturer’s default filter (DF) and low-frequency-extension filter (LFX) with those from the NL-1000 pedometer in an older adult sample. Fifteen older adults (61–82 yr) wore a GT3X+ (24 hr/day) and an NL-1000 (waking hours) for 7 d. Day was the unit of analysis (n = 86 valid days) comparing (a) GT3X+ DF and NL-1000 steps/d and (b) GT3X+ LFX and NL-1000 steps/d. DF was highly correlated with NL-1000 (r = .80), but there was a significant mean difference (–769 steps/d). LFX and NL-1000 were highly correlated (r = .90), but there also was a significant mean difference (8,140 steps/d). Percent difference and absolute percent difference between DF and NL-1000 were –7.4% and 16.0%, respectively, and for LFX and NL-1000 both were 121.9%. Regardless of filter used, GT3X+ did not provide comparable pedometer estimates of steps/d in this older adult sample.

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Øystein Sylta, Espen Tønnessen and Stephen Seiler

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of self-reported (SR) training duration and intensity distribution in elite endurance athletes.

Methods:

Twenty-four elite cross-country skiers (25 ± 4 y, 67.9 ± 9.88 kg, 75.9 ± 6.50 mL · min−1 · kg−1) SR all training sessions during an ~14-d altitude-training camp. Heart rate (HR) and some blood lactate measurements were collected during 466 training sessions. SR training was compared with recorded training duration from HR monitors, and SR intensity distribution was compared with expert analysis (EA) of all session data.

Results:

SR training was nearly perfectly correlated with recorded training duration (r = .99), but SR training was 1.7% lower than recorded training duration (P < .001). SR training duration was also nearly perfectly correlated (r = .95) with recorded training duration >55% HRmax, but SR training was 11.4% higher than recorded training duration >55% HRmax (P < .001) due to SR inclusion of time <55% HRmax. No significant differences were observed in intensity distribution in zones 1–2 between SR and EA comparisons, but small discrepancies were found in zones 3–4 (P < .001).

Conclusions:

This study provides evidence that elite endurance athletes report their training data accurately, although some small differences were observed due to lack of a SR “gold standard.” Daily SR training is a valid method of quantifying training duration and intensity distribution in elite endurance athletes. However, additional common reporting guidelines would further enhance accuracy.

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Toshimasa Yanai, Akifumi Matsuo, Akira Maeda, Hiroki Nakamoto, Mirai Mizutani, Hiroaki Kanehisa and Tetsuo Fukunaga

developed a force measurement system embedded under a soil-filled mound. 5 This system may be installed in a baseball field and used for monitoring pitching techniques in real-time during practice and game situations. It is, therefore, worthwhile to list reliable and valid biomechanical parameters

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Paul M. Vanderburgh

Purpose:

To assess the validity of Boston Marathon qualifying (BMQ) standards for men and women.

Methods:

Percent differences between BMQ and current world records (WR) by sex and age group were computed. WR was chosen as the criterion comparison because it is not confounded by intensity, body composition, lifestyle, or environmental factors. A consistent difference across age groups would indicate an appropriate slope of the age-vs-BMQ curve. Inconsistent differences were corrected by adjusting BMQ standards to achieve a uniform percentage difference from WR.

Results:

BMQ standards for men were consistently ~50% slower than WR (mean 51.5% ± 1.4%, range 49.6–54.4%), thus demonstrating acceptable validity. However, BMQ standards for women indicated convergence with WR as age increased (mean 45.8% ± 13.7%, range 17.5–58.9%). The women’s BMQ standards were revised to yield a consistent 50% deviation from WR across age groups (50.9% ± 0.8%, range 49.2–52.2%). Applied to all 16,773 women in the 2012 Chicago Marathon, the suggested BMQ standards would lead to a 4.90% success rate, compared with 8.39% using the current standard. This compared with a 9.6% success rate for all 20,681 men of the same race.

Conclusions:

The current women’s BMQ standards appear too lenient for women 18–54 y and too strict for women 55–80 y but yield equitable gender representation in percentage of qualifiers. The current men’s and suggested women’s BMQ standards appear valid but would lead to approximately 40% fewer women achieving BMQ standards.

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Katie Weatherson, Lira Yun, Kelly Wunderlich, Eli Puterman and Guy Faulkner

occupational sitting time within office environments. 5 Interventions aimed at reducing sitting or increasing PA, depend on valid and reliable measures of these behaviours. 6 Retrospective self-report methods of assessing these behaviors rely on participants to recall past experience (within some defined

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James Wright, Thomas Walker, Scott Burnet and Simon A. Jobson

reliability and validity of the PowerTap P1 pedals have been investigated between 100 and 500 W at 70, 85, and 100 rpm. 7 These authors reported that the P1 pedals slightly underestimated the SRM Powermeter by 2 to 7 W but suggested that the pedals were reliable and valid, concluding that they were a cost

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Michael Wilkinson, Damon Leedale-Brown and Edward M. Winter

Purpose:

This study examined the validity of a squash-specific test designed to assess endurance capability and aerobic power.

Methods:

Eight squash players and eight runners performed, in a counterbalanced order, incremental treadmill (TT) and squash-specific (ST) tests to volitional exhaustion. Breath-by-breath oxygen uptake was determined by a portable analyzer and heart rate was assessed telemetrically. Time to exhaustion was recorded.

Results:

Independent t tests revealed longer time to exhaustion for squash players on the ST than runners (775 ± 103 vs. 607 ± 81 s; P = .003) but no difference between squash players and runners in maximal oxygen uptake ( Vo2max) or maximum heart rate (HRmax). Runners exercised longer on the TT (521 ± 135 vs. 343 ± 115 s; P = .01) and achieved higher Vo2max than squash players (58.6 ± 7.5 vs. 49.6 ± 7.3 mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .03), with no group difference in HRmax. Paired t tests showed squash players achieved higher Vo2max on the ST than the TT (52.2 ± 7.1 vs. 49.6 ± 7.3 mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .02). The Vo2max and HRmax of runners did not differ between tests, nor did the HRmax of squash players. ST and TT Vo2max correlated highly in squash players and runners (r = .94, P < .001; r = .88, P = .003).

Conclusions:

The ST discriminated endurance performance between squash players and runners and elicited higher Vo2max in squash players than a nonspecifc test. The results suggest that the ST is a valid assessment of Vo2max and endurance capability in squash players.

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Matti Hyvärinen, Sarianna Sipilä, Janne Kulmala, Harto Hakonen, Tuija H. Tammelin, Urho M. Kujala, Vuokko Kovanen and Eija K. Laakkonen

in epidemiologic studies due to their relatively low cost and ease of implementation regardless of their limited reliability and validity due to the potential response bias and issues related to recalling the physical activity ( Kowalski, Rhodes, Naylor, Tuokko, & MacDonald, 2012 ; Shephard, 2003