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Kent A. Lorenz, Hans van der Mars, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Barbara E. Ainsworth and Melbourne F. Hovell

encourage participation. c Reinforcement of PA participation was offered by research personnel through nonverbal gestures (eg, fist bump), verbal praise (eg, “Great seeing you today!”), or earning tokens (eg, virtual tokens as a stamp in a PA passport to earn prizes or immediate tangible rewards such as

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

of pacing behavior. 2 , 4 As shown before in observational and experimental studies, an opponent could be such an affordance, inviting exercisers to adjust their pacing behavior. 4 – 6 For example, the presence of a virtual opponent has been revealed to improve performance. 5 , 7 – 9 Moreover

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Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco and Alfred Nimmerichter

pedal force at the start of each TT. To replicate real-world TT cycling, participants consequently used a self-pacing strategy where gearing was adjusted throughout efforts using the virtual gear changer mounted to the handlebars. Feedback over elapsed time and strong encouragement were provided

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Jared R. Fletcher and Brian R. MacIntosh

method is based on the principle of virtual work, 2 which assumes that a constant force is applied to the tendon. A constant force will allow a constant tendon length, so the measured tendon excursion represents a true displacement. In vivo, it is assumed that when no external moment acts on the joint

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Aaron England, Timothy Brusseau, Ryan Burns, Dirk Koester, Maria Newton, Matthew Thiese and Benjamin Chase

kinesthesia and the use of MRs of intentional movements in children and concluded that the development of kinesthetic perception takes many years to fully mature and is thought to end around late adolescence. Using a virtual radial Fitts task, Caeyenberghs et al. ( 2009 ) reported rapid growth in the

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Thilo Hotfiel, Marion Kellermann, Bernd Swoboda, Dane Wildner, Tobias Golditz, Casper Grim, Martin Raithel, Michael Uder and Rafael Heiss

Radiation Force Impulse Imaging . Ann Rehabil Med . 2015 ; 39 ( 3 ): 393 – 400 . PubMed ID: 26161345 doi:10.5535/arm.2015.39.3.393 10.5535/arm.2015.39.3.393 26161345 19. D’Onofrio M , Crosara S , Canestrini S , et al . Virtual analysis of pancreatic cystic lesion fluid content by ultrasound

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Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S. Rosén, Olga Tarassova and Anton Arndt

is, 2 markers on each side of the transducers and 2 markers on each side of the flywheel rotation center to create virtual markers at the fixed points where the rope runs into the ergometer flywheel on each side. The transducers were connected to an amplifier (Type 5073; Kistler Instruments AG), and

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Sarah M. Coppola, Philippe C. Dixon, Boyi Hu, Michael Y.C. Lin and Jack T. Dennerlein

. Santa Monica, CA : Human Factors and Ergonomics Society . 2. Varcholik PD , LaViola JJ , Hughes CE . Establishing a baseline for text entry for a multi-touch virtual keyboard . Int J Hum Comput Stud . 2012 ; 70 : 657 – 672 . doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2012.05.007 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2012.05.007 3

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A. Mark Williams and Bradley Fawver

spatial navigation in real-world contexts (see Figure  1 ). Advances in virtual reality and simulation technology should provide increased opportunities to develop paradigms where the exteroceptive and interoceptive demands of spatial navigation may be reproduced under controlled and reproducible

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Logan A. Lucas, Benjamin S. England, Travis W. Mason, Christopher R. Lanning, Taylor M. Miller, Alexander M. Morgan and Thomas Gus Almonroeder

ecological validity (eg, athletes react to a virtual defender). 32 , 33 It is also important to note that our results may not generalize to more experienced athletes with greater expertise, as elite athletes may be better equipped to control their movement when there are temporal constraints on decision