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Lana M. Pfaff and Michael E. Cinelli

. Participants were outfitted with two rear-facing rigid bodies (one on the head and one on the right scapula), which were used as references for five digitized virtual markers (left and right ears, left and right glenohumeral joints, and the 10th thoracic vertebrae). The digitized points were used to calculate

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Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

Edited by Kim Gammage

models, based on mathematically specified “rules” about how members interact, that represent human behavior in groups. These models allow researchers to conduct virtual experiments that test theoretical propositions that attempt to predict future member behavior. These predictions can be further

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Levy Silva Rezende, Markus Brendon Lima and Emanuel Péricles Salvador

when this study was structured. The search was performed using descriptors (DeCS/MeSH) or keywords, depending on the database used. The descriptors “motor activity” and “spinal cord disease” were searched in the PubMed and biblioteca virtual em saúde (BVS) databases, whereas the terms “motor activity

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Eduardo Macedo Penna, Edson Filho, Samuel Penna Wanner, Bruno Teobaldo Campos, Gabriel Resende Quinan, Thiago Teixeira Mendes, Mitchell Robert Smith and Luciano Sales Prado

time can negatively influence performance in both cognitive and motor tasks ( 9 ). Furthermore, leisure activities involving virtual environments (eg, electronic games, social media) are very popular among school age populations. These activities may potentially induce mental fatigue. Conclusion The

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Rob van der Straaten, Oren Tirosh, William A. (Tony) Sparrow and Rezaul Begg

coordination . J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci . 2005 ; 60 : 312 – 319 . PubMed ID: 15860466 doi:10.1093/gerona/60.3.312 15860466 10.1093/gerona/60.3.312 11. Baram Y , Miller A . Virtual reality cues for improvement of gait in patients with multiple sclerosis . Neurology . 2006 ; 66 : 178 – 181

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Fabiana Rodrigues Osti, Caroline Ribeiro de Souza and Luis Augusto Teixeira

& Science in Sports, 26 ( 3 ), 275 – 283 . PubMed doi:10.1111/sms.12423 10.1111/sms.12423 Eikema , D.J. , Hatzitaki , V. , Tzovaras , D. , & Papaxanthis , C. ( 2012 ). Age-dependent modulation of sensory reweighting for controlling posture in a dynamic virtual environment . Age, 34 ( 6

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James J. Hannigan, Louis R. Osternig and Li-Shan Chou

between sexes. A total of 39 reflective markers were placed on participants. 29 , 30 The trunk segment was defined by 2 markers on the acromion processes and a virtual marker at the pelvis center of mass. 10 The pelvis was defined by 2 markers on the anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS), and 1 at the

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Gerda Strutzenberger, Adam Brazil, Timothy Exell, Hans von Lieres und Wilkau, John D. Davies, Steffen Willwacher, Johannes Funken, Ralf Müller, Kai Heinrich, Hermann Schwameder, Wolfgang Potthast and Gareth Irwin

, a virtual toe marker was created half-way between the 2 RSP markers. Step length and width were identified using the toe markers. Step frequency of the first step was calculated as 1/(first stance contact time + flight time) and step velocity as the product of step frequency and step length. Kinetic

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Nichola Callow, Dan Jiang, Ross Roberts and Martin G. Edwards

spatial and temporal locations as per a slalom task. The virtual reality display presented the driver’s view out through the front window of the car as if actually driving the car. Training and Experimental Phases Participants completed a 90-min training phase period where they had to achieve two criteria

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Mostafa Zarei, Hamed Abbasi, Abdolhamid Daneshjoo, Mehdi Gheitasi, Kamran Johari, Oliver Faude, Nikki Rommers and Roland Rössler

12. Donath L , Rössler R , Faude O . Effects of virtual reality training (exergaming) compared to alternative exercise training and passive control on standing balance and functional mobility in healthy community-dwelling seniors: a meta-analytical review . Sports Med . 2016 ; 46 ( 9