The Olympic Games are one of the most popular global televised sporting events. In the greater body of sport communication literature, a great deal of focus has been placed on examining sport media from the West. This article considers the unique and specific case of Chinese Olympic broadcast commentary televised by state media. In this, an evolutionary process of sport media can be seen in the analysis of several themes: nationalism and identity, heroes and failure, collectivism and individualism, and the portrayal of female athletes. In considering the dynamic changes that have come about in the past 3 decades of Chinese commentary, it is evident that many themes in Chinese sport media have become reflective of those found in Western sport media. While Chinese sport media have similarities to Western sport media, it is important to note that Chinese sport media are unique. Results of this work can help provide richer understanding of sport media and consumers in China.
Nicholas M. Watanabe, Tie Nie and Grace Yan
Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Phillip J. Cheetham, Yilmaz Alp and Diamantis Arampatzis
At the 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games, 70 dismounts and release-regrasp movements on the high bar were selected from films gathered with three synchronized cameras during the compulsory and the optional men's high bar competition. The skills were classified into 10 groups depending on the direction of rotation, body configuration, and flight projection. Kinematic variables were used to profile the movement groups. Statistically significant differences between the groups were identified by ANOVA. Three groups with significant differences in terms of the maximum values and the locations of the maxima could be differentiated. These were (a) backward rotating swings with an increase of rotation (e.g., overgrip giant swing—triple backward tuck somersault dismount), (b) backward rotating swings with a change of the direction of rotation (e.g., overgrip giant—Tkatchov straddle), and (c) forward rotating swings with an increase or a decrease of rotation (e.g., undergrip giant swing—Jaeger somersault).
Nils Vikander, Tor Solbakken and Margarita Vikander
The propose of the study was to investigate gender patterns in psychological/behavioral characteristics of elite Cross County skiers. Twentyeight athletes who won medals in Olympic Games or World Championships were accessed using the Behavior Inventories for Cross County Skiers (Rushall and Vikander, 1987). Nine clusters common to both men and women were identified as: relationship with other athletes; relationship with the coach; relationship to significant others; training factors; pre-competition factors; competition factors; reactions to things that go wrong; considerations about the sport, and things champions like about cross country skiing. With this inquiry we have uncovered both gender similarities and differences among the world’s foremost cross country skiers in psychological dimensions as well as in the behavioral arena.
Christine M. O’Bonsawin
This paper serves as a re-reading of the historical record concerning the participation of a Kanien’kehá:ka (Mohawk) team in the lacrosse championship of the 1904 St. Louis Olympic Games. Indigenous and deconstructionist methodological frameworks provide historians with strategies for reopening archival texts to ironic interpretation in the hope that we may better recognize the efforts of Indigenous peoples to confront and challenge colonial hegemony. Accordingly, this paper first evaluates the uncritical acceptance of a Kanien’kehá:ka lacrosse player roster comprising unconventional names into the official Olympic record. Second, a re-reading of archival texts allows us to reopen history to ironic interpretation, exposing the possibility that Kanien’kehá:ka players used humor and laughter to resist, subvert, and, ultimately, deny colonial hegemony. We may begin to support the larger missions of Indigenous resurgence and decolonization by revisiting our histories, and thus giving testimony to the past.
Michael M. Morlock and Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky
The performance in bobsledding is influenced by several factors. This study concentrated on influences of the environment and the bobsled crew on the final time of a bobsled run. The analysis was performed with data collected during the four-man competition at the 1988 Winter Olympic Games in Calgary. It was shown that the start order, the ice temperature, and the push time together explain about 50% of the variance in the performance (α=0.05). It is suggested that the existing rule concerning the start order in a heat be modified to guarantee a fair competition. Selected speed and turn time variables were shown to give an indication of the characteristics and the important sections of the bobsled track at Canada Olympic Park. It is speculated that the optimization of turn times is more important than the increase in speed in a turn.
Dennis Dreiskaemper, Bernd Strauss, Norbert Hagemann and Dirk Büsch
Hill and Barton (2005) showed that fighters in tae kwon do, boxing, and wrestling who wore red jerseys during the 2004 Olympic Games won more often than those wearing blue jerseys. Regarding these results, this study investigated the effects of jersey color during a combat situation on fighters’ physical parameters of strength and heart rate. An artificial, experimental combat situation was created in which the color of sport attire was assigned randomly. Fourteen pairs of male athletes matched for weight, height, and age had to fight each other: once in a red jersey and once in a blue. Heart rate (before, during, and after the fight) and strength (before the fight) were tested wearing the blue and the red jerseys. Participants wearing red jerseys had significantly higher heart rates and significantly higher pre-contest values on the strength test. Results showed that participants’ body functions are influenced by wearing red equipment.
Stephen Dittmore, Daniel Mahony, Damon P.S. Andrew and Mary A. Hums
The purpose of this study was to measure U.S. National Governing Body (NGB) administrators’ perceptions of fairness of financial resource allocation within the U.S. Olympic Movement. This study extends previous research on distributive justice in the sport industry by examining a new setting and controlling for the potential moderating effect of procedural justice. Presidents and executive directors responded to a survey containing three resource allocation scenarios. Study participants most often identified need to be competitively successful as the most fair distribution principle, but believed equity based on medals won was the most likely to be used. Results also indicated significant differences in the perceived fairness of distribution principles based on the budget size of the NGB, the membership size of the NGB, and the NGB’s success in the Olympic Games. These results have implications for the evolving priorities of NGBs, how these priorities are being addressed, and possible reactions to resource distribution decisions.
Rosa M. Angulo-Kinzler, Stephen B. Kinzler, Xavier Balius, Carles Turro, Josep M. Caubet, Josep Escoda and J. Antoni Prat
This study explains the general aspects of the biomechanics of the pole vault and presents a 3D analysis of the best official performances of the top 8 pole vaulters at the 1992 summer Olympic Games in Barcelona. Two time code synchronized S-VHS video cameras operating at 50 Hz were used. All vaulters showed a reduced last stride and a low CM during the penultimate foot support. Great horizontal velocity at takeoff, high grip, and well timed angular momentum serve as good indicators of a jumper's performance. An early positioning of the hips parallel to the bar can be very beneficial, as can a close placement of the CM to the bar at the time of pole release. Finally, an advantageous bar clearance technique used by the winning Unified Team vaulters is noted.
Tan Zhang and Michael L. Silk
At present, and as China negotiates the instantiation of consumer capitalism, her urban spaces have experienced agonizing growth affecting housing, the internationalization of cities, interactions between government and developers, the development of rural land, migrant flows, and social stratification within the city. Focusing on Beijing, we locate the efforts to host major sporting events—especially the 1990 Asian Games and the 2008 Olympic Games—within the dynamics of the spatial reconfigurations in Beijing, a rapid reordering based on “capital space” (Harvey, 2001), gentrification, and the lifestyle practices of a burgeoning middle and upper class of Beijingers. In so doing, we offer a multidimensional account of the complex manner in which power, mobility, and transformation within a modernizing Beijing intersects with the discursive constitution of bodies, concluding with regard to new forms of social cleavages and inequalities that derive from embracing, however selectively, the logistics of the market in the framework set by the Chinese nation-state.
Richard C. Nelson, Ted S. Gross and Glenn M. Street
The purpose of this report was to provide a model analysis of biomechanical films taken during the women's gymnastic vaulting events of the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games. Although a majority of the optional vaults were filmed, only the 16 vaults performed by the competitors in the individual championships were examined. The analysis included calculations of temporal, spatial, and velocity parameters as the gymnast's center of mass moved through four phases of the vault. The phases were identified as Reuther board contact, prehorse flight, horse contact, and posthorse flight. A representative profile of a female gymnast competing in the Games was compiled based on these parameters. This profile indicated that the gymnasts were much smaller than the average population, efficient in the use of the Reuther board and the horse to reach and maintain CM velocities necessary to complete the vault, and agile enough to perform complex airborne rotations during an average posthorse flight duration of .80s.