This study examined whether the provision of choice in physical education (PE) enhanced students’ autonomous motivation, perceived autonomy support, and physical activity (PA) levels, relative to a “regular PE” control group. Students from eight intact high school PE classes (N = 257, Mage = 12.91) were randomly assigned to control (i.e., four classes) and intervention (i.e., four classes) conditions. Students in the intervention group were given a unique opportunity to choose their preferred participatory role in their PE units, while control students participated in normal teacher-led PE, and data were collected over a 15-week program (i.e., three units of five weeks each). The results indicated that a lack of choice in PE aligned with less positive perceptions of autonomy support among students within the control group, compared with their counterparts in the intervention group. In some choice formats, students exhibited significantly higher PA levels than students who undertook normal PE. These findings indicate that offering choice in high school PE lessons may encourage perceptions of autonomy support and levels of in-class physical activity.
Yew Meng How, Peter Whipp, James Dimmock and Ben Jackson
Hyungil Harry Kwon, Do young Pyun and May Kim
The objective of the study was to see whether a teacher-coach exhibits different types of leadership behavior when s/he teaches a PE class and coaches a group of athletes. The participants in this study were 17–18 year old second-year preuniversity students from two local junior colleges in Singapore. A total of 159 students of mixed gender participated, including 80 PE students and 79 student-athletes from floorball, canoeing, and shooting teams. All of the 159 students were taught or coached by three (one male and two female) PE teachers, who performed the dual roles of a PE teacher-coach in the school. The data collection instrument used in this study was the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai & Saleh, 1980) measuring five leadership behaviors. A multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that democratic decision making accounted for most of the differences between the PE students’ and student-athletes’ perceived leadership behavior of their teacher-coaches; the student-athletes perceived their coaches to provide training and instruction more than did the PE students. In addition to training and instruction, the student-athletes perceived more positive feedback given to them than did the PE students. For decision making style, students in PE class perceived more democratic decision making than athletes in school teams. The social support subscale did not show statistically significant group difference.
James D. Wyant and Kristi N. Wyant
In recent years, the physical education (PE) profession has been forced to confront a plethora of issues, from the demise of teacher education programs to the loss of programming in the K–12 context. Calls for change and a time of introspection have been prompted by this climate. The impetus for change has long been a staple of PE discourse. Occupational socialization theory, which describes the forces that shape the decisions and behaviors of physical education teachers, offers insight on the change narrative. Emerging from the results of occupational socialization research are myriad negative issues that highlight a perplexing problem—some PE teachers have the propensity to make irrational decisions. The purpose of this article is to apply decision theory as a means to critically examine issues that have emerged from the negative socialization cycle of PE teachers. Beyond connecting theories, suggestions will be provided to improve the decision-making of PE professionals.
Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen and Jan Seghers
Based on the self-determination theory, this study investigated the mediating role of the satisfaction of the three psychological needs (need for competence, relatedness and autonomy) in the relation between need support from the physical education (PE) teacher and autonomous motivation to engage in PE and between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation to engage in PE. Data were collected from 2418 6th grade children. Analyses were performed using bootstrapping. The results showed that perceptions of competence and autonomy mediated the relation between need support from the PE teacher and autonomous motivation. Moreover, the perception of autonomy also mediated the relation between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation. These findings suggest that not only the PE teacher but also the physical school environment is able to promote autonomous motivation by satisfying the need for autonomy.
William J. Cousineau and Moira D. Luke
This study examined the relationship between teachers’ expectations of performance and the academic learning time (ALT) of elementary students in physical education classes. Six teachers from different schools were asked to rank-order their students according to expected levels of performance in physical education. Thirty-six students, one boy and one girl from the high, middle, and low expectancy groups of each class, were chosen for observation in three basketball lessons to determine ALT–PE. Using ANOVA, a significant difference was found between level of teacher expectation and academic learning time of students. High expectancy students had significantly higher ALT–PE measures than middle expectancy students, who in turn had higher ALT–PE measures than low expectancy students. Significant differences in ALT–PE were also evident across the three basketball lessons observed. No significant difference was found between student gender and ALT–PE. These results suggest that a relationship does exist between teacher expectations and academic learning time in physical education.
Larissa R. Galatti, Yura Yuka Sato dos Santos and Paula Korsakas
Unlike other countries, coaching in Brazil is recognized as a profession since the legal regulation of physical education (PE) in 1998 ( Law 9696, September 1, 1998 ). This makes our coaching system unique and demands new approaches to coaching education ( Milistetd et al., 2016 ; Milistetd
Luis Columna, Luz Amelia Hoyos-Cuartas, John T. Foley, Jose Rafael Prado-Perez, Dana Milena Chavarro-Bermeo, Ana Lorena Mora, Maria Antonieta Ozols-Rosales, Luis Álvarez-del Cid and Ivana Rivero
To analyze Latin American physical education (PE) teachers’ intentions toward teaching students with disabilities.
474 in-service PE teachers from 5 different Latin American countries.
Descriptive survey. Data were collected using a modified version of the Physical Educators’ Intention Toward Teaching Individuals With Disabilities Survey. Multiple-regression analysis showed significant differences in the attitudes of teachers by gender, the number of adapted-PE courses taken, and years of experience working with individuals with disabilities.
The predictor variables had a significant impact on the participants’ intentions toward teaching children with disabilities; however, the effects of these predictor variables differed between countries.
Toni A. Hilland, Nicola D. Ridgers, Gareth Stratton and Stuart J. Fairclough
The study investigated associations between selected physical activity correlates among 299 adolescents (90 boys, age 12–14 years) from 3 English schools. Physical activity was assessed by self-report and accelerometry. Correlates represented biological, predisposing, and demographic factors as described in the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model. Boys engaged in more self-reported (p < .01) and accelerometer assessed physical activity than girls (p = .02). Positive associations between sex (male), BMI, Perceived PE Ability, Perceived PE Worth, number of enrolled students, and physical activity outcomes were evident (p < .05). School-based physical activity promotion should emphasize sex-specific enhancement of students’ perceived PE competence and enjoyment.
Sara Barnard Flory
The purpose of this study was to examine the early career experiences of three physical education (PE) teachers who taught in urban charter schools. Using cultural relevance theory, three early career PE teachers were observed and interviewed for approximately six weeks each. Data were analyzed using constant comparison. Two major themes emerged from the data: the mechanisms of school support, and achieving ‘insider’ versus ‘outsider’ status during teachers’ early careers. These findings highlight the challenges that early career PE teachers face in urban schools, and demonstrate how being a culturally relevant teacher can improve teaching in physical education.
Stuart Fairclough and Gareth Stratton
Forty studies reporting physical activity during middle and high school physical education (PE) classes were reviewed. Students engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 27% to 47% of class time. Intervention strategies were successful in increasing MVPA. During nonintervention classes the highest levels of MVPA occurred in invasion games and fitness activities. Movement activities stimulated the lowest levels. Boys and girls spent 40% of class time in MVPA. Differences in MVPA during PE were also methodology dependent. PE classes can complement other school-based opportunities to contribute to young people’s daily physical activity.