In response to the recent impact of Generation Y in the sport marketplace, this researach article examines the association between consumer behavior preferences and two segmentation variables, gender and physical activity level, for an adolescent segment (ages 14-17 years) of Canadian Generation Y youth. Questionnaire results from a sample of 1,127 respondents yielded data related to various consumer preferences for sporting goods purchases. These factors include purchase decision making, price, frequency, location, and product features. Results indicate an association among Generation Y, gender, and physical activity level with respect to a number of consumer preferences related to sport footwear, apparel, and equipment. Discussion and implications address how sport marketers might interpret the consumer profile results according to both age and cohort perspectives.
Julie Stevens, Anna Lathrop and Cheri Bradish
Jacquelyn Cuneen and M. Joy Sidwell
Gender portrayals in sport-related advertising generally reinforce institutionalized sexism and culturally defined sex-role behaviors. Gender-defining messages in advertising photographs may have an especially profound impact on children because children understand meanings in pictures before they understand meanings in text. The purpose of this study was to analyze gender portrayals contained in advertisements appearing in Sports Illustrated for Kids (SIK) over a 6-year period. Advertisements were coded to determine (a) the total number of advertisements featuring females and males, (b) genders represented as prominent or supporting in advertising portrayals, and (c) gender portrayals in advertisement activities and product types. Content analysis revealed that girls and women were drastically underrepresented as models in SIK advertising and that distinct gender roles were sustained by depicting males in nearly all types of activities and products. Conventional stereotypical relationships between sport and gender were represented in the majority of SIK advertisements.
Several models of organizational effectiveness are integrated into a comprehensive framework from a viewpoint of organizations as open systems. The multidimensionality of effectiveness is seen as emanating from both the input-throughput-output conceptualization of an organization and the distinctive domains of activities of an organization. The relevance of specific dimensions of effectiveness is said to be contingent upon the type of organization and/or the domain of activities the organization is engaged in. The paper describes the multiple constituency approaches that variously emphasize the need to satisfy the powerful groups, the least advantaged groups, or different groups at different times. The position taken in this paper, however, advocates the perspective of the “prime beneficiary.”
Velina B. Brackebusch
rely on government funding and nonprofit clubs for an opportunity to play and exercise. Managing and Developing Community Sport is a timely book, as it addresses the link between community sport and the business sector by reviewing how physical activity, sport development, health promotions, coaching
Christine E. Wegner, Jeremy S. Jordan, Daniel C. Funk and Brianna Soule Clark
In the current study the researchers investigated the creation of an identity for Black female runners through their psychological and behavioral involvement in a national running organization for Black women. A repeated measures design was used with 756 members, surveying them twice over a 14-month period regarding their involvement both with the organization and with the activity of running. We found that members’ psychological and behavioral involvement with running increased over time, and that this change was more salient for members who did not consider themselves runners before they joined the organization. These findings provide initial support for the facilitation of a running identity through membership in this running organization.
Joshua I. Newman
This article seeks to unsettle the taken-for-granted epistemological and ontological foundations upon which many curricular and research-based activities in contemporary sport management are grounded. With an emphasis on that academic field’s development in the United States in particular, the author problematizes the underlying assumptions that guide many of sport management’s concomitant scientific and industrial projects. The article concludes with a brief discussion on how we might reenvisage both the study and praxis of sport management in ways that are not just economically generative, but in ways that might also bring about cultural and social transformation.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the organizational effectiveness of Finnish sports clubs (n = 835) from an open systems perspective. Five dimensions of effectiveness were examined, including the ability to obtain resources, internal atmosphere, efficiency of the throughput process, realization of aims, and general level of activity. All dimensions except internal atmosphere were intercorrelated. The findings indicated that many features of effectiveness were largely linked to the size of the membership, ideological orientation, and organizational environment. Success orientation was found to be incompatible with a relaxed atmosphere.
Jeffrey W. Kassing and Jimmy Sanderson
This case study examines how fans can experience a major sporting event (cycling’s Tour of Italy) through a particular new communication technology platform—Twitter. To explore this possibility the authors tracked the “tweets” sent out by a selection of American and English-speaking riders during the 3-wk race. Their analysis of these texts revealed that Twitter served to increase immediacy between athletes and fans. This occurred as athletes provided commentary and opinions, fostered interactivity, and cultivated insider perspectives for fans. These activities position Twitter as a powerful communication technology that affords a more social vs. parasocial relationship between athletes and fans.
Tom Mueller and Marilyn S. Roberts
This article examines the state of sponsorship marketing and its correlation with branding-measurement models deemed most salient by corporations. Academic literature including sponsorship-value analysis, stockholder response to sport and brand activities, measurements of brand value, and the application of brand theory are explored. The readings suggest that a sports entity must deliver a positive and complementary brand association to attract corporate partners. Sport entities that remain competitive in the marketplace will build individual, strong brands that add to, and do not deplete or detract from, the equity built in the corporate sponsor’s brand.
Ambush marketing activities—such as advertisements that obliquely reference a major event—have frustrated major sport event organizers and sponsors for years. Nevertheless, these activities, so long as they stopped short of trademark infringement or false advertising, have been perfectly legal. In the last decade, major sport event organizers such as the International Olympic Committee and the Fédération Internationale de Football Association have pressured national governments to pass legislation prohibiting ambush marketing as a condition of a successful bid to host an event. Such legislation has already been enacted in the United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand, and the statutes in these jurisdictions reveal an emerging right of association. In this paper, the author surveys the evolution of this right and its key features. She offers a critique of this right, and argues that the need for it has never been properly established, and that the legislation is overly broad, does not reflect an appropriate balancing of interests, and may infringe upon the freedom of expression.