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Jun Oga

The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which the Japanese sport industry was affected by business fluctuations in the domestic economy during the 1986-1993 business cycle. In addition, the relations between changes in the general economy (gross domestic product, combined sector in the economic activities, family income, living expenditures, and working hours) and the value of the sport industry were investigated. The annual figures for these variables were derived from several government and nongovernment publications, and the percentage changes in these variables were used in multiple regression analysis. Analysis indicated that the trend in value of the sport industry was affected by the fluctuations and demonstrated positive correlation with the changes in the combined sector in the general economy. However, the trend in value of the sport industry was not correlated with trends in family income or living expenditures during the period under observation. Subsequent analysis of the sportswear sector in the sport industry demonstrated negative correlation with working hours.

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Osamu Hata and Norio Umezawa

This study examined the rates and patterns of use of the various facilities, equipment, and programs in a Yokohama fitness club. Analyses of the responses of 208 members (males = 98, females = 110) to a specially constructed questionnaire showed that the showers, sauna, bath, and Jacuzzi were the most often used facilities followed by aerobic exercise machines (e.g., exercise bikes and treadmills), the swimming pool, and machines for training the lower and upper body. In addition, four distinct and representative patterns of use of the facilities and equipment were identified. Swimming activities dominated Pattern A, and accordingly it was named the Swimming Pattern (n=59). Pattern B, the Dance and Communication Pattern (n = 15), was characterized by the use of the communication hall and coffee lounge and participation in aerobic dance. Pattern C, the Fashionable Pattern (n = 4), consisted of participation in aerobic dance for men, 1-km swimming, and the use of the tanning corner and restaurant. Finally, Pattern D, the Machine Training Pattern (n = 130), included the use of weights to train the upper and lower body. These results revealed an inefficient use of some of the facilities and equipment of the club. In addition to these findings, respondents preferred their supervisors to be friendly and expressed a desire for a larger swimming pool.

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Danny O'Brien and Trevor Slack

Since 1995, the organizational field that constitutes English rugby union has undergone considerable transformation. Utilizing ideas about changes in actors, changes in exchange processes and interorganizational linkages, changes in the legitimized forms of capital in the field, and changes in regulatory structures, this paper explores the nature of this transformation in English rugby union. Data from 43 interviews with key individuals in the English game form the main data source for the study. The results show that changes in the communities of actors composing the field hastened change in other areas. Powerful new actors with strong ties to business environments brought with them professionally oriented values and a new institutional logic. Having made significant financial investments in the field, these actors collectively took measures to protect their economic interests. These measures took the form of political activity and coalition building, which, ultimately, reconfigured the field's regulatory structure. The new emphasis on economic capital prompted significant shifts in key actors' exchange relationships, in that clubs' strategies and structures were reoriented in order to gain access to this important network resource.

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Lucie Thibault and Jean Harvey

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature and extent of interorganizational linkages between the partners involved in Canada's sport delivery system. Given the changes in the economic context of the 1990s and the ensuing fiscal restraints exercised by both government and the private sector, amateur sport organizations are in a period of high uncertainty. In order to deal with this uncertainty, links between organizations like governments, nonprofit sport organizations, and private sector organizations need to be established, fostered, and maintained. Organizations need to collaborate with each other in order to fulfill their objectives. Linkages between organizations will assist in the sharing of resources and in the coordination of work-related activities. In the paper, a number of examples of existing links between governments, nonprofit organizations, and private organizations are presented. Based on resource dependency theory, strategies such as contracts, joint ventures, and co-optation for establishing new interorganizational linkages are discussed. As well, related issues such as power struggles, loss of autonomy, asymmetrical relationships, and conflicting loyalties are addressed and discussed. Questions for future research also are proposed.

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Kevin Filo, Daniel Funk and Danny O’Brien

Sport events benefiting a charitable cause have emerged as meaningful experiences for participants. These charity sport events may allow event sponsors to shape perceptions of corporate image among event participants. Using the Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) as the theoretical framework, the factors that contribute to participants’ perceptions of event sponsors are examined. The influence of this image of event sponsors on behavioral outcomes among participants is also investigated. A post-event questionnaire was administered to participants in a sport event (N = 672) to investigate the relationships among motives, sponsor image, event attachment, purchase intent, and future participation intent. Results reveal that recreation and charity motives contribute to event attachment, while charity motives and event attachment contribute to sponsor image. Significantly, sponsor image and attachment contribute to purchase intent for event sponsors’ products. Finally, sponsor image does not influence future participation intent, while event attachment does. The results illustrate the discrete roles that sponsor image and attachment play in sport consumption activities. Suggestions are made for the strategic selection and marketing of events by potential sponsors to most effectively leverage event sponsorship opportunities.

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Nico Schulenkorf and Deborah Edwards

Building on the evidence of social impacts generated by sport events, there is a need for research to identify strategies suitable for maximizing event benefits for disparate interest communities. This paper investigates the opportunities and strategic means for sustaining and leveraging social event benefits arising from intercommunity sport events in the ethnically divided Sri Lanka. Following an interpretive mode of inquiry, findings are derived from the analysis of two focus groups and 35 in-depth interviews with Sinhalese, Tamil, Muslim and international event stakeholders. To maximize event benefits, findings suggest that event organizers and host communities focus strategically on children as catalysts for change; increase ethnically mixed team sport activities; provide event-related sociocultural opportunities; combine large-scale events with regular sport-for-development programs; and engage in social, cultural, political and educational event leverage. By implementing these strategies and tactics, intercommunity sport events are likely to contribute to local capacity building and inclusive social change, which can have flow-on effects to the wider community. These findings extend the academic literature on strategic event planning, management and leverage, as they provide a focus on community event leverage for social purposes in a developing world context—an area which has thus far received limited empirical research.

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Mathew Dowling and Jimmy Smith

This investigation examined how Own the Podium (OTP) has contributed to the ongoing development of highperformance sport in Canada. In adopting an institutional work perspective, we contend that OTP’s continuance has not been the sole product of Canada’s success at the Olympic and Paralympic Games or lobbying efforts to secure additional funding. Rather, OTP’s permanence can also be explained as the by-product of the activities and actions of OTP itself and its supporting stakeholders to embed and institutionalize both the organization specifically and high-performance sport more generally in the Canadian sport landscape. In short, OTP’s continued existence can, in part, be explained by ongoing institutional work. To support our contentions, we draw on and analyze documentation that was either produced by, or significant to the development of, OTP. Our analysis identifies a number of OTP-related practices (e.g., tiering, hiring of high-performance advisors, and the creation and support of new high-performance sport programs) that have further institutionalized OTP and the norms, routines, and practices associated with high-performance sport. More broadly, our investigation draws attention to the importance of individual and collective actors in shaping institutional settings in sport.

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Linda S. Koehler

It is proposed that the focus of sport management research be broadened to include those individuals who fill management positions in sport/fitness-related enterprises. A particularly useful approach is that of organizational behavior as it pertains to sport/fitness managers. Drawing from the content of organizational behavior for use in the study presented here, items of measure for job satisfaction include ability utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, authority, company policies/practices, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, moral values, recognition, responsibility, security, social service, social status, supervision-human relations, supervision-technical, variety, and working conditions. The corporate fitness managers participating in this study reported their level of general job satisfaction to be an average of 78.67 out of a possible 100 points. The factors shown to be significantly more satisfying than all other factors at the .05 level were social service and moral values. Additionally, although not significantly different from each other, both factors of advancement and compensation were revealed to be significantly more dissatisfying at the .05 level than all other factors.

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Pamela Wicker and Paul Downward

the beneficiaries. For example, the policy sporting future of the United Kingdom states the following ( HM Government, 2015 , pp. 37–38): “Volunteering in sport and physical activity enriches lives, both those of the volunteers and those whose sport and physical activity is facilitated by them

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Lauren E. Brown

discussion questions, case studies, and skill-based activities, available both online and in the text, aid in the integration of theory and practice. The text also specifically emphasizes practical applications, addressing the concerns of the North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM), and outlines