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Mutlu Cug, Erik A. Wikstrom, Bahman Golshaei and Sadettin Kirazci


Both female athletes’ participation in soccer and associated injuries have greatly increased in recent years. One issue is the 2–9 times greater incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female athletes relative to male athletes in comparable sports. Several factors such as limb dominance and sporting history have been proposed to play a role in ACL incidence rates between male and female athletes. However, evidence about the effects of these factors and how they interact with sex is mixed, and thus no consensus exists.


To quantify the effects of sports participation, limb dominance, and sex on dynamic postural control and knee-joint proprioception.


Cross-sectional study.


University research laboratory.


19 male soccer players, 17 female soccer players, 19 sedentary men, and 18 sedentary women.


Joint-position sense was tested using reproduction of passive positioning on a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer (30°, 45°, and 60° from 90° of knee flexion). Three Star Excursion Balance Test directions were used to assess dynamic postural control.

Main Outcome Measure:

Normalized reach distance (% of leg length) in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions on each leg quantified dynamic postural control. Average absolute error and constant error for both limbs quantified joint-position sense.


Posteromedial reach distance was significantly better in soccer players than sedentary individuals (P = .006). Anterior reach distance was significantly better (P = .04) in sedentary individuals than soccer players. No limb-dominance or sex differences were identified for dynamic postural control, and no differences in absolute- or constant-error scores were identified.


Sporting history has a direction-specific impact on dynamic postural control. Sporting history, sex, and limb dominance do not influence knee-joint proprioception when tested in an open kinetic chain using passive repositioning.

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Julie P. Burland, Adam S. Lepley, Marc Cormier, Lindsay J. DiStefano and Lindsey K. Lepley

Protracted deficits in knee function after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are commonly attributed to the extensive neural alterations that are observed after injury. 1 – 4 Notably, these widespread neural alterations impede the ability of targeted exercises to efficiently

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Kristin D. Morgan

Over 250,000 individuals suffer an anterior cruciate ligament injury in the United States annually, resulting in reconstructive surgery and extensive rehabilitation with the purpose of restoring joint stability and muscle strength to previous functional levels. 1 – 3 The limb symmetry index, which

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Aiko Sakurai, Kengo Harato, Yutaro Morishige, Shu Kobayashi, Yasuo Niki and Takeo Nagura

Generally, 70% of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury at the knee joint occur during noncontact episode, such as deceleration, lateral pivoting, or landing tasks. 1 – 3 According to previous studies, knee abduction angle and moment during landing tasks are reported as essential biomechanical

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Bradley S. Beardt, Myranda R. McCollum, Taylour J. Hinshaw, Jacob S. Layer, Margaret A. Wilson, Qin Zhu and Boyi Dai

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries place a financial burden on society and result in decreased physical function, increased risk of ACL reinjury, and higher prevalence and earlier onset of knee osteoarthritis. 1 , 2 Although ACL injury prevention programs have been shown to decrease ACL

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Cherice N. Hughes-Oliver, Kathryn A. Harrison, D.S. Blaise Williams III and Robin M. Queen

points in a waveform. Using the limb symmetry index, limb asymmetry in female runners is reported to influence which limb would be more likely to be injured. 1 A similar limb symmetry index has been used in hop testing following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) to assess readiness to

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Janet E. Simon, Dustin R. Grooms and Carrie L. Docherty

cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, lateral collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament) 0 8 6 61.8%; 22.22 to 82.56; P  < .01 Ligament and cartilaginous (anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, and meniscus) 0 0 18 54.5%; 18.68 to 71.85; P  < .01 Abbreviations: CI

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Karinna Sonálya Aires da Costa, Daniel Tezoni Borges, Liane de Brito Macedo, Caio Alano de Almeida Lins and Jamilson Simões Brasileiro

Individuals subjected to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are exposed to a number of neuromuscular modifications. These modifications cause deficits in joint stabilization and postural changes. A reduction in the recruitment of motor units and in the cross-sectional area of the

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Mark C. Richardson, Andrew Wilkinson, Paul Chesterton and William Evans

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common across a number of sports, with a high prevalence in basketball, volleyball, and soccer. 1 Most injuries occur during a unilateral jumping or landing task. 2 Despite significant emphasis being placed on injury prevention, injury rates continue

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Anh-Dung Nguyen, Jeffrey B. Taylor, Taylor G. Wimbish, Jennifer L. Keith and Kevin R. Ford

Sex differences in lower extremity landing biomechanics that are thought to increase strain on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) have been suggested to contribute to the disproportionate incidence of ACL injury in females compared with their male counterparts. 1 In particular, females have been