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Haresh T. Suppiah, Chee Yong Low, Gabriel Choong and Michael Chia

high-level athletes who experience chronic sleep restriction, despite its prevalence and advocacy in the literature. 16 A caveat when considering the usage of napping in enhancing performance is the effect of sleep inertia, which is defined as a transitional state of lowered arousal occurring

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Nicholas J. Hanson, Sarah C. Martinez, Erik N. Byl, Rachel M. Maceri and Michael G. Miller

circulating dopamine (DA) in the brain, which has been shown to increase arousal and motivation, 2 and can improve endurance performance in athletes. 3 The use of caffeine is highly prevalent not only in the general population but also with athletes. It is a drug that is not currently banned by any athletic

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Alexandra Valencia-Peris, Joan Úbeda-Colomer, Jorge Lizandra, Carmen Peiró-Velert and José Devís-Devís

more naturalistic studies find a small or no increase in physical activity over sedentary video gaming. 19 , 20 According to some studies, active gaming has also psychological benefits for children and adolescents, such as higher satisfaction, perceived exertion, and arousal compared with more

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Christine M. Tallon, Ryan G. Simair, Alyssa V. Koziol, Philip N. Ainslie and Alison M. McManus

be other changes that occur following the cessation of moderate-intensity exercise, such as postexercise elevations in cerebral oxygen consumption. Release of brain-derived neurotrophic factors or increased arousal that might account for the postexercise improvements in cognitive function shown in

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Jeffrey D. Labban and Jennifer L. Etnier

in Psychology, 4 ( 863 ), 1 – 12 . doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00863 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00863 Lambourne , K. , & Tomporowski , P. ( 2010 ). The effect of exercise-induced arousal on cognitive task performance: A meta-regression analysis . Brain Research, 1341 , 12 – 24 . PubMed ID: 20381468

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John B. Nezlek, Marzena Cypryańska, Piotr Cypryański, Karolina Chlebosz, Karolina Jenczylik, Joanna Sztachańska and Anna M. Zalewska

general) will be next week?” Our measure of affect was based on a circumplex model (e.g.,  Feldman Barrett & Russell, 1998 ) that distinguishes the valence (positive or negative) and arousal (activated or deactivated) of affect. Positive activated affect (PA) was measured with the items happy, proud

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Jordan L. Fox, Robert Stanton, Charli Sargent, Cody J. O’Grady and Aaron T. Scanlan

gameplay, and this may be more prominent when losing and, therefore, attempting to reduce the score-line. Our data also revealed that only sRPE was moderately higher during wins than losses. This finding may be related to psychological factors such as increased stress and arousal experienced during games

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Philip Hurst, Lieke Schipof-Godart, Florentina Hettinga, Bart Roelands and Chris Beedie

number of studies investigating the placebo effect and the neurobiological pathways underlying this phenomenon. 2 Qualitative data suggest that placebo effects may be associated with a reduction in pain sensation, arousal regulation, and increases in motivation, 12 which may be mediated and moderated

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Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

fatigue. This revised central fatigue hypothesis suggests that an increase in central ratio of 5-HT to DA is associated with feelings of tiredness and lethargy, accelerating the onset of fatigue, whereas a low ratio favors improved performance through the maintenance of motivation and arousal (see

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Cornelia Frank, Gian-Luca Linstromberg, Linda Hennig, Thomas Heinen and Thomas Schack

-Chandler, & Loughead, 2016 ). Drawing on the applied model of imagery use ( Martin et al., 1999 ), the authors investigated the use of cognitive specific imagery, cognitive general imagery, motivational specific imagery, motivational general-arousal imagery, and motivational general-mastery imagery with a team focus