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Kavita A. Gavand, Kelli L. Cain, Terry L. Conway, Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Jacqueline Kerr, Karen Glanz and James F. Sallis

example of each of these categories of recreation facilities: (1) indoor recreation or exercise facility (private/public, YMCA/boys and girls club, dance, and martial arts); (2) beach/lake/river/creek; (3) bike/hiking/walking trails and paths; (4) basketball court; (5) other playing fields

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Jesse Couture

shifts considerably over the course of its four-year run. However counterintuitively, for the first two years, a great emphasis is placed on self-defence and martial arts. This, I suspect, was likely influenced by the Martins’ stake in co-promoting their martial arts facility, Brand-X Martial Arts and

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Jeffrey Martin

criticism. For example, vocational education leaders have stated that “vocational education has very little, if any, value to the individual, community, or to the economy unless the skills that are learned enable people to get and hold jobs” ( Miller, 1984 , p. 40). Careers in the performing arts (i

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Ryan King-White and Adam Beissel

this intensification is that tenured/tenure-track faculty are increasingly being replaced by low-wage, term-limited faculty; partnerships and contractual relationships are being aggressively established with private corporations and corporate donors; academic programs in the arts and humanities have

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Tywan G. Martin, Jessica Wallace, Young Ik Suh, Kysha Harriell and Justin Tatman

). However, CTE is not a diagnosis that is specific and unique to American football. Previous research has suggested that CTE concerns should be much broader in scope, for CTE can be anticipated in other contact sports such as ice hockey, martial arts, and soccer ( Rabadi & Jordan, 2001 ). For example, a

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Aysha M. Thomas, Kayleigh M. Beaudry, Kimbereley L. Gammage, Panagiota Klentrou and Andrea R. Josse

-line skating, skipping, street hockey, skateboarding, tag, and walking for exercise. Team activities included badminton, baseball, basketball, football, ice hockey, rowing, swimming, soccer, and volleyball. Fitness activities included aerobics, dance, martial arts, and yoga. Significant reductions were

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Danielle Peers

, 2011 ; Oliver, 1990 ). Less commonly, APA research is influenced by postmodern paradigmatic assumptions: drawing from disciplines, such as (sport) sociology, philosophy, history, fine arts, as well as feminist, indigenous, postcolonial, and disability studies. Postmodern, and specifically

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Maureen Connolly and William J. Harvey

social sciences, the humanities, the arts, and the natural sciences), or what has been referred to by Kagan ( 2009 ) as cultures, make contributions to APA. We prefer to adapt further the notion of “adapted physical activity” to adaptive physical activity to underscore its organic and responsive

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Dustin A. Hahn, Matthew S. VanDyke and R. Glenn Cummins

explored general motives for viewing sports ( Frandsen, 2008 ; Gantz, 1981 ), differentiating motives between men and women ( Gantz & Wenner, 1991 ), the role of personality traits ( Devlin & Brown-Devlin, 2017 ), and sports-specific viewing motives (e.g., mixed martial arts, Cheever, 2009 ) or platform

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Martin J. Turner, Stuart Carrington and Anthony Miller

), cricket ( n  = 1), tennis ( n  = 2), badminton ( n  = 2), gymnastics ( n  = 10), athletics ( n  = 2), squash ( n  = 2), basketball ( n  = 1), golf ( n  = 1), show jumping ( n  = 1), hockey ( n  = 7), mixed martial arts ( n  = 1), paddle boarding ( n  = 1), karate ( n  = 1), rackets ( n  = 1), rugby ( n