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David R. Lubans, Chris M. Mundey, Nicole J. Lubans and Chris C. Lonsdale

The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and feasibility of a resistancetraining (RT) and lifestyle-activity program for sedentary older adults. Eligible participants (N = 44) were randomized to an 8-wk intervention or a control group. The primary outcome was lower body muscle strength, and participants completed a range of secondary outcomes. There was a significant group-by-time interaction for lower body muscle strength (difference = 3.9 repetitions [reps], 95% CI = 2.0–5.8 reps; p < .001; d = 1.0). Changes in secondary outcomes were generally small and not statistically significant. Attendance and program satisfaction were both high. A combined elastic-tubing RT and lifestyle-activity program delivered in the community setting is an efficacious and feasible approach to improve health in sedentary older adults.

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Sara Wilcox and Abby C. King

Associations of life events and interpersonal loss with participation in home-and group-based exercise were studied in 97 older adults (64% women, 70.2 ± 4.1 years). Life events were assessed with a modified Social Readjustment Rating Scale at baseline and 6 and 12 months. Exercise logs and class-attendance records documented exercise participation. Participants experienced 3.62 ± 3.56 unique life events over the course of the study, and 28 participants reported an interpersonal loss (5 men, 23 women). Number of life events was negatively associated with home-based exercise participation (p < .05); among women, this association approached significance (p = .06) for class-based exercise. Women who experienced an interpersonal loss had lower class-based participation than those who did not (p = .02), but home-based participation rates were unaffected. Life events, particularly interpersonal loss, appear to have a negative impact on exercise in women, and this effect appears greater for class-based than for home-based exercise.

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Kristi Sweeney, Megan Schramm-Possinger, Elizabeth A. Gregg and Harriet Stranahan

This case explores the potential implications of the National Football League’s (NFL) domestic violence problem. The purpose of this case study is to introduce students to logistic regression analysis. The case uses this method to address if the NFL’s Ray Rice domestic violence scandal will impact consumer behavior and loyalty toward the league. Given the significant role loyalty and retention has on profitability, the case investigates whether the Rice incident influenced fan decision-making, paying close attention to female consumers. The framework of analysis considers fan perceptions of the Ray Rice domestic violence scandal and the league’s response as potential deterrents of NFL game attendance and consumption of league media. Students will consider a variety of predictors, such as gender, age, and fan perception of the league’s domestic violence problem, in an attempt to yield insight into the possible influence of the Rice events on the commitment level of NFL fans. This case study is intended for use in research methods and assumes knowledge of regression analysis. However, in the event an instructor does not wish to run a logistic regression analysis, descriptive statistics could be used to detect patterns of responses that illustrate variance in fans’ perceptions of how consumer behavior may be affected by domestic violence issues.

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Ketra L. Armstrong

Women’s sports is at an all-time high, as evidenced by the emergence of a number of professional women’s sport leagues (such as basketball, baseball, and fast-pitch softball). Notwithstanding the growth and popularity of women’s sports, these leagues will have to compete with other forms of leisure for consumers’ discretionary time and resources. Since financial stability is vital to the longevity of the developing women’s leagues, the competition for consumers will require a greater need for the marketers of women’s professional sport organizations to understand the variety of factors that influence sport consumers’ behavior and shape the composition of their respective markets. Presented in this article are the results of a study in which the consumers of one of the professional women’s basketball teams that competed in the American Basketball League (ABL)were investigated. The teams’ spectators are profiled as sport consumers, factors that influenced their attendance, are identified and implications for effective marketing strategies are noted.

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Charles M. Tipton

Within the archives of Springfield College are the unofficial minutes of the Gulick Academy of Physical Education from 1906–1909. Surprisingly, the attendance, participation, and presentations of Clark W. Hetherington were not very impressive, which raised the question, what had he accomplished to warrant the Academy designating him as its first member and president—or for making the Hetherington Award its highest honor? The answer is complex, but insights can be obtained from the results of an early association with Thomas D. Woods and from the implementation of his philosophy of play by select schools and states. By 1926, many universities had adopted his objectives and curricula for physical education, while his philosophy for physical education began to be promoted by the physical education profession. However, since 2010 the term physical education has been removed from our title and bylaws. Consequently, should we continue to have our highest honor be identified with the Hetherington Award? I sincerely hope so, but the issue should be addressed by our membership.

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Donald P. Roy, Timothy R. Graeff and Susan K. Harmon

Past research concerning the effects of college athletics has concentrated on examining the effects of on-field success on increased donations to the university and increased enrollment applications. This research examines the effects of a university’s move to NCAA Division I-A football membership on marketing variables, such as attitudes toward the university, perceptions of the university, and behavioral intentions regarding attendance at sporting events and donating money. Members of three important stakeholder groups (students, alumni, and area residents) responded to questions dealing with a university’s recent move to Division I-A football. With respect to overall perceptions of I-A football and reactions to the University’s recent move to I-A, students, alumni, and the general public believe that I-A football is more prestigious than I-AA football. Further, I-A football status can create a positive image for a university, can attract students to attend the university, is the best sport for fostering alumni involvement with the university, and it enhances school spirit. These results suggest that the positive perceptions associated with I-A can create the solid foundation upon which additional (future) positive experiences and associations can build, leading to greater financial gains in the future.

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Marina L. McCready and Bonita C. Long

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between exercise adherence and the combined effects of locus of control and attitudes toward physical activity. The primary instruments used were the Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance Scales (Levenson, 1974); the Exercise Objectives Locus of Control Scales (developed by the first author); and the Revised Children's Attitudes Toward Physical Activity Inventory (Schutz, Smell, & Wood, 1981a). The subjects were 61 females, ages 15-57 (M = 28), voluntarily participating in 8- to 12-week aerobic fitness programs. Findings indicated only a weak relationship between adherence and the combination of locus of control and attitudes. Results of stepwise regression analysis revealed that two attitude measures were the best predictors of exercise adherence. In general, those subjects who at the outset of the programs had a less positive attitude toward participating in physical activity for continuing social relations and a more positive attitude toward participating in order to reduce stress and tension tended to have a higher percent attendance.

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Ralph Maddison and Harry Prapavessis

There were three aims to the present study: (a) to test a social cognitive model based on self-efficacy and intention in predicting compliance to exercise in a Phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program; (b) to examine temporal patterns of self-efficacy in an 18-week exercise CR program; and (c) to ascertain whether the social-cognitive variables act more as determinant or consequence of exercise behavior during the program. Forty-one participants (29 M, 12 F; mean age 63 ± 9 .81 yrs) with documented ischemic heart disease enrolled in an 18-week supervised walking-based Phase 2 CR exercise program. They completed scales assessing self-efficacy and intention at the beginning of the program (Time 1) and again at Weeks 7 (Time 2) and 13 (Time 3). Compliance behavior was assessed through daily attendance and exercise energy expenditure measures, via metabolic equivalents (ACSM Guidelines, 1995). Data provide general support for the social cognitive model. That is, positive and meaningful relationships were found among self-efficacy, intention, and objectively measured exercise behavior, explaining 16 to 59% of the variance. Results also showed that both task and barrier efficacy significantly improved during the early part of the exercise program and then leveled off during program termination. Finally, results suggest that social-cognitive variables act more as a determinant than a consequence of exercise behavior. The findings underscore the need for scale congruence between the measures of self-efficacy, intention, and objective measures of exercise behavior.

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Maureen R. Weiss and Carl T. Hayashi

The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child influences associated with highly competitive gymnastics participation. Athletes (n = 24) responded to self-report measures of perceived parental influences, and the athletes’ parents (n = 39) responded to interview questions regarding the influence of their child’s gymnastics involvement on their own behaviors. Descriptive analyses of gymnasts’ responses revealed that parents (a) frequently attended meets, (b) encouraged their child’s participation extensively, (c) demonstrated positive affect toward their child’s involvement, and (d) held positive beliefs and realistic expectations about their child’s competence. Parents’ responses indicated large time and financial investments as a result of their child’s involvement and indicated that their child’s participation positively influenced such behaviors as (a) attendance at gymnastics meets, (b) reading sports-related literature, (c) watching sports on television, (d) participating in fitness-related activities, and (e) parenting in general. These findings support theory and research that advocate the reciprocal nature of parent-child socialization effects in sport.

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Tina J. Hall, Lori K. Hicklin and Karen E. French


To examine the relationship between the South Carolina middle school physical education assessment results and the school characteristics. In addition, the relationship between teacher training attendance and student achievement were determined.


Student performance on four physical education indicators in 63 middle schools (and 116 teachers) were reported to the South Carolina Physical Education Assessment Program. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between school characteristics as predictors of the performance indicator. ANOVAs were conducted to determine the relationship to teacher training and the performance indicators.


Statewide averages of student performance indicated that slightly over 50% of middle school students were rated as competent in all physical education indicators except health-related fitness (31.2%). The variability was high among all indicators. The correlations between the poverty index and the physical education indicators were significant and low. Teachers who attended data collection training sessions scored higher on all performance indicators, particularly health-related fitness knowledge. Teachers who attended professional development had significantly higher scores on motor skills, health-related fitness knowledge, and the overall weighted scores and approached significance on the health-related fitness performance.


This study suggests that teachers and the programs they deliver have a greater impact on student learning than do school characteristics. Teacher training and professional development is warranted. Most compelling is that the results of this study provide a strong argument against the practice of using student scores from other academic content areas to evaluate teacher effectiveness in physical education.