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Jonathon R. Staples, Kevin A. Schafer, Matthew V. Smith, John Motley, Mark Halstead, Andrew Blackman, Amanda Haas, Karen Steger-May, Matthew J. Matava, Rick W. Wright and Robert H. Brophy

to patient recruitment. Patients or Participants All patients were recruited from the practices of 3 academic orthopedic sports medicine surgeons who work in the same clinic. Exclusion criteria included prior knee pathology, concomitant articular cartilage or ligamentous injury, contralateral knee

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Siobhán O’Connor, Róisín Leahy, Enda Whyte, Paul O’Donovan and Lauren Fortington

.9-13.7 Dislocation 1 0.2 7 1.6 1 2.3 3 0.7 13 4 1.7-5.0 Cartilage/meniscus 0 0 0 0 0 0 33 7.5 33 7.5 5.4-10.4 Overuse 1 0.2 4 0.9 5 1.1 21 4.8 31 7.1 5.0-9.8 Concussion 17 3.9 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 17 3.9 2.4-6.1 Dead leg or bruise 0 0 4 0.9 0 0 17 3.8 21 4.8 3.2-7.2 Laceration 1 0.2 8 1.8 0 0 5 1.1 14 3.2 1

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Dominique C. Leibbrandt and Quinette A. Louw

in articular cartilage pathology. 5 , 6 The exact cause of this increased joint stress is unknown, but it may arise from abnormal biomechanical and neuromuscular factors that cause maltracking of the patella within the femoral trochlea. 7 , 8 Although this theory has been well cited in the

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Orges Lena, Jasemin Todri, Ardita Todri, José Luis Martínez Gil and Maria Gomez Gallego

techniques, in any case, is exposed to a great stress in this vertebral area. 3 , 4 The mechanism that is evidenced in these situations of great physical stress is that the soft tissues, such as the muscles, cartilage of the facets, ligaments, and intervertebral discs, cannot withstand the cutting movements

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Kenji Kanazawa, Yoshihiro Hagiwara, Takuya Sekiguchi, Ryo Fujita, Kazuaki Suzuki, Masashi Koide, Akira Ando and Yutaka Yabe

. Osteoarthritis Cartilage . 2012 ; 20 : 241 – 249 . PubMed ID: 22233812 doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2011.12.008 22233812 17. Bercoff J , Tanter M , Fink M . Supersonic shear imaging: a new technique for soft tissue elasticity mapping . IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control . 2004 ; 51 : 396 – 409

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

10 g/day ( Clark et al., 2008 ; McAlindon et al., 2011 ) Increased collagen production; thickened cartilage; decreased joint pain Gelatin and collagen supplements appear to be low risk. Few data available ( Clark et al., 2008 ; McAlindon et al., 2011 ; Shaw et al., 2017 ) but increased collagen

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Chadwick Debison-Larabie, Bernadette A. Murphy and Michael W.R. Holmes

the superciliary ridge and opisthocranion. 24 Via manual palpation, neck circumference and neck width were measured at the level of C4, neck length from the midpoint between C7/T1 to the midpoint of C1, and neck depth from above the thyroid cartilage perpendicular to the long axis of the neck. 26

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James L. Farnsworth II, Todd Evans, Helen Binkley and Minsoo Kang

. Osteoarthritis Cartilage . 2016 ; 24 ( 8 ): 1317 – 1329 . PubMed ID: 27012756 doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2016.03.010 27012756 18. Deroche T , Woodman T , Stephan Y , Brewer BW , Le Scanff C . Athletes’ inclination to play through pain: a coping perspective . Anxiety Stress Coping . 2011 ; 24 ( 5

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Juliana S. Oliveira, Leanne Hassett, Catherine Sherrington, Elisabeth Ramsay, Catherine Kirkham, Shona Manning and Anne Tiedemann

.1371/journal.pone.0168614 10.1371/journal.pone.0168614 Quicke , J.G. , Foster , N.E. , Thomas , M.J. , & Holden , M.A. ( 2015 ). Is long-term physical activity safe for older adults with knee pain?: A systematic review . Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 23 ( 9 ), 1445 – 1456 . PubMed ID: 26003947 doi:10

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Jennifer Dekker, Katlynne Nelson, Nigel Kurgan, Bareket Falk, Andrea Josse and Panagiota Klentrou

critical appraisal . Gene . 2005 ; 361 : 38 – 56 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gene.2005.07.016 16183214 10.1016/j.gene.2005.07.016 29. Patil AS , Sable RB , Kothari RM . An update on transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β): sources, types, functions and clinical applicability for cartilage/bone healing