Iliac blood-flow restrictions causing painful and “powerless” legs are often attributed to overtraining and may develop for some time before being correctly diagnosed. In the current study, differences between actual performance parameters and performance parameters predicted from the Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test (LSCT) were studied in a world-class cyclist with bilateral kinking of the external iliac artery before and after surgery. Two performance-testing sessions, including a peak-poweroutput (PPO) test and a 40-km time trial (TT) were conducted before surgery, while 1 testing session was conducted after the surgery. Actual vs LSCT-predicted performance parameters in the world-class cyclists were compared with 82 symptom-free trained to elite male cyclists. No differences were found between actual and LSCT-predicted PPO before and after surgical intervention. However, there were differences between actual and LSCT-predicted 40-km TT time in the tests performed before the surgery (2:51and 2:55 min:s, respectively). These differences were no longer apparent in the postsurgery 40-km TT (2 s). This finding suggests that iliac blood-flow restrictions seem to mainly impair endurance performance rather than peak cycling performance. A standard PPO test without brachial ankle blood-pressure measurements might not be able to reflect iliac bloodflow restrictions. Differences between actual and LSCT-predicted 40-km TT time may assist in earlier referral to a cardiovascular specialist and result in earlier detection of iliac blood-flow restrictions.
Robert P. Lamberts, Theresa N.C. Mann, Gerard J. Rietjens and Hendrik H. Tijdink
George Wilson, Neil Chester, Martin Eubank, Ben Crighton, Barry Drust, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close
Professional jockeys are unique among weight-making athletes, as they are often required to make weight daily and, in many cases, all year-round. Common methods employed by jockeys include dehydration, severe calorie restriction, and sporadic eating, all of which have adverse health effects. In contrast, this article outlines a structured diet and exercise plan, employed by a 22-yr-old professional National Hunt jockey in an attempt to reduce weight from 70.3 to 62.6 kg, that does not rely on any of the aforementioned techniques. Before the intervention, the client’s typical daily energy intake was 8.2 MJ (42% carbohydrate [CHO], 36% fat, 22% protein) consumed in 2 meals only. During the 9-wk intervention, daily energy intake was approximately equivalent to resting metabolic rate, which the athlete consumed as 6 meals per day (7.6 MJ, 46% CHO, 19% fat, 36% protein). This change in frequency and composition of energy intake combined with structured exercise resulted in a total body-mass loss of 8 kg, corresponding to reductions in body fat from 14.5% to 9%. No form of intentional dehydration occurred throughout this period, and mean urine osmolality was 285 mOsm/kg (SD 115 mOsm/kg). In addition, positive changes in mood scores (BRUMS scale) also occurred. The client was now able to ride light for the first time in his career without dehydrating, thereby challenging the cultural practices inherent in the sport.
John Petrizzo, Frederick J. DiMenna, Kimberly Martins, John Wygand and Robert M. Otto
To achieve the criterion appearance before competing in a physique competition, athletes undergo preparatory regimens involving high-volume intense resistance and aerobic exercise with hypocaloric energy intake. As the popularity of “drug-free” competition increases, more athletes are facing this challenge without the recuperative advantage provided by performance-enhancing drugs. Consequently, the likelihood of loss of lean body and/or bone mass is increased. The purpose of this investigation was to monitor changes in body composition for a 29-year-old self-proclaimed drug-free female figure competitor during a 32-week preparatory regimen comprising high-volume resistance and aerobic exercise with hypocaloric energy intake. We used dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to evaluate regional fat and bone mineral density. During the initial 22 weeks, the subject reduced energy intake and engaged in resistance (4–5 sessions/week) and aerobic (3 sessions/week) training. During the final 10 weeks, the subject increased exercise frequency to 6 (resistance) and 4 (aerobic) sessions/week while ingesting 1130–1380 kcal/day. During this 10-week period, she consumed a high quantity of protein (~55% of energy intake) and nutritional supplements. During the 32 weeks, body mass and fat mass decreased by 12% and 55%, respectively. Conversely, lean body mass increased by 1.5%, an amount that exceeded the coefficient of variation associated with DXA-derived measurement. Total bone mineral density was unchanged throughout. In summary, in preparation for a figure competition, a self-proclaimed drug-free female achieved the low body-fat percentage required for success in competition without losing lean mass or bone density by following a 32-week preparatory exercise and nutritional regimen.
Jos J. de Koning, Cees-Jan van der Zweep, Jesper Cornelissen and Bouke Kuiper
Optimal pacing strategy was determined for breaking the world speed record on a human-powered vehicle (HPV) using an energy-flow model in which the rider’s physical capacities, the vehicle’s properties, and the environmental conditions were included. Power data from world-record attempts were compared with data from the model, and race protocols were adjusted to the results from the model. HPV performance can be improved by using an energy-flow model for optimizing race strategy. A biphased in-run followed by a sprint gave best results.
Kathleen M. Armour
This paper considers long-standing concerns about research/theory practice gaps in kinesiology, and proposes one potential solution. An analysis of the problem is followed by an overview and illustration of a new translational research mechanism: pedagogical cases (Armour, 2014). This mechanism has been designed to support the training and career-long development of practitioners in the broad field of physical activity education (PAE). It is argued that PAE practice is always interdisciplinary, therefore researchers in the kinesiology sub/disciplines have a responsibility to collaborate across disciplinary boundaries to develop new, interdisciplinary knowledge that meets the needs of practitioners. It is also argued that researchers and practitioners have a responsibility to work together to do the difficult synthesis work required to improve both research and practice.
decrease in patellar tendon cross-sectional area, the tendon did show decreased functional performance ( de Boer et al., 2007 ), suggesting that decreased collagen synthesis is associated with impaired tendon function. This paper presents a case study of a professional basketball player with chronic PT
Mark Kenneally, Arturo Casado and Jordan Santos-Concejero
: participants were not middle- or long-distance runners and intervention/observation period lasted <4 weeks. The overall sample included 6 observational reports, 3 case studies, and 6 interventions. One review was also included (Table 1 ). Table 1 Characteristics of the Studies and the Participants
James J. Malone, Arne Jaspers, Werner Helsen, Brenda Merks, Wouter G.P. Frencken and Michel S. Brink
the relationship between the training load observed and the subsequent self-reported wellness response. Methods Case Study A male professional soccer GK playing for a team in the top league of The Netherlands (age = 21 y, height = 1.9 m, and weight = 82.4 kg) agreed to participate in this study during
Scott R. Brown, Erin R. Feldman, Matt R. Cross, Eric R. Helms, Bruno Marrier, Pierre Samozino and Jean-Benoît Morin
leg (ie, decreasing asymmetry); and (3) determine the influence and practical implications of decreasing F H asymmetry on global sprint performance. Methods Athlete Description One male athlete (age, 29 y; height, 188.1 cm; body mass, 100.6 kg) participated in this case study. The athlete’s sport
Bent R. Rønnestad and Joar Hansen
absolute increases in W max were 19.7% and 14.2%, respectively. The relative and absolute increases in Power 3la - were 36.1% and 29.3%, respectively. The increase in 6RM 1-leg leg press was 27.3% from the first to the last assessment (Figure 1 ). Discussion This case study provides a unique 58-week