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Mark E. Kasmer, Xue-cheng Liu, Kyle G. Roberts and Jason M. Valadao

Purpose:

To determine prevalence of heel strike in a midsize city marathon, if there is an association between foot-strike classification and race performance, and if there is an association between foot-strike classification and gender.

Methods:

Foot-strike classification (forefoot, midfoot, heel, or split strike), gender, and rank (position in race) were recorded at the 8.1-km mark for 2112 runners at the 2011 Milwaukee Lakefront Marathon.

Results:

1991 runners were classified by foot-strike pattern, revealing a heel-strike prevalence of 93.67% (n = 1865). A significant difference between foot-strike classification and performance was found using a Kruskal-Wallis test (P < .0001), with more elite performers being less likely to heel strike. No significant difference between foot-strike classification and gender was found using a Fisher exact test. In addition, subgroup analysis of the 126 non-heel strikers found no significant difference between shoe wear and performance using a Kruskal-Wallis test.

Conclusions:

The high prevalence of heel striking observed in this study reflects the foot-strike pattern of most mid-distance to long-distance runners and, more important, may predict their injury profile based on the biomechanics of a heel-strike running pattern. This knowledge can help clinicians appropriately diagnose, manage, and train modifications of injured runners.

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Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Chalchisa Abdeta, Patrick Abi Nader, Ade F. Adeniyi, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Dolores S. Andrade Tenesaca, Jasmin Bhawra, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Catherine E. Draper, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Karla I. Galaviz, Silvia A. González, Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Katariina Kämppi, Tarun R. Katapally, Piyawat Katewongsa, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Asaduzzaman Khan, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Estelle Lambert, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Juan López-Taylor, Yang Liu, Daga Makaza, Taru Manyanga, Bilyana Mileva, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, Vida K. Nyawornota, Reginald Ocansey, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Pairoj Saonuam, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Natasha Schranz, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Narayan Subedi, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Dawn Tladi, Richard Tyler, Riaz Uddin, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Ching-Lin Wu, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay

on their HDI classification to cover costs associated with the Global Matrix 3.0 initiative. Three different tiers of registration fees ($500 USD for the low HDI countries, $750 USD for the medium HDI countries, $1000 USD for the high HDI countries, and $1500 USD for the very high HDI countries) were

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Gabrielle G. Gilmer, Jessica K. Washington, Jeffrey R. Dugas, James R. Andrews and Gretchen D. Oliver

functional test has been accepted for clinical use. Thus, LPHC instability was defined based on a specific classification system derived from previous studies. We classified participants as “unstable” if they displayed knee valgus greater than 15° at 45° knee flexion in the descending phase of the squat. 19

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Hannah Horris, Barton E. Anderson, R. Curtis Bay and Kellie C. Huxel Bliven

tests separately by test position. Table 1 Indicators of Breathing Pattern Classification by Breathing Test and Test Position Test position Breathing test Indicators of breathing pattern classification Breathing pattern Supine Seated Standing Half kneeling Hi-lo Lack of abdominal excursion Dysfunctional

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Bradley J. Cardinal, Hermann-J. Engels and Weimo Zhu

The Transtheoreticai Model of behavior change was applied to a sample of 669 preadolescents (M age = 8.2) to determine whether stages of exercise could be observed. Associations between stage of exercise classification and demographic, fitness, and cognitive variables were examined. Stage of exercise classifications, on the basis of the Children’s Stage of Exercise Algorithm, were as follows: maintenance (50.8%), action (36.5%), preparation (3.1%), contemplation (4.9%), and precontemplation (4.6%). Stage of exercise was significantly related to gender, age, and grade level. Controlling for these differences, the relationship between exercise beliefs and stage of exercise was significant.

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Swati M. Surkar, Rashelle M. Hoffman, Brenda Davies, Regina Harbourne and Max J. Kurz

exclusion criteria to qualify for the study. The inclusion criteria for children with HCP were 1) children diagnosed with hemiplegia due to brain damage between the age of 3–10 years; 2) children with HCP with the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) level II (handles most of the objects but with

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Jahan Heidari, Johanna Belz, Monika Hasenbring, Jens Kleinert, Claudia Levenig and Michael Kellmann

training group, with an average duration of each training session of 120.80 minutes (SD = 32.37). The classification of competitive athletes was based on performance level, thereby complying with the recommendations by Heidari et al 13 and Swann et al. 41 Athletes competing in the first to fourth German

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Morteza Sadeghi, Gholamali Ghasemi and Mohammadtaghi Karimi

between T1 and T12 (American Spinal Cord Association classification A = 6, B = 6, C = 2, and D = 2) were randomly assigned to 2 groups (ie, rebound and control) in this study. Table  1 shows the characteristics of the subjects having participated in this study. The rebound group received rebound therapy

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Theo Ouvrard, Alain Groslambert, Gilles Ravier, Sidney Grosprêtre, Philippe Gimenez and Frederic Grappe

(ranged from 0.7% for the final general classification to 2.2% for the time trial stages 39 ). This sizeable impact on performance clearly suggests that it may no longer be possible for any professional cyclist to win a Grand Tour without using this strategy and explains why the best teams always employ

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Keith P. Gennuso, Kathryn Zalewski, Susan E. Cashin and Scott J. Strath

Background:

To examine the effectiveness of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA) resistance training (RT) guidelines to improve physical function and functional classification in older adults with reduced physical abilities.

Methods:

Twenty-five at-risk older adults were randomized to a control (CON = 13) or 8-week resistance training intervention arm (RT = 12). Progressive RT included 8 exercises for 1 set of 10 repetitions at a perceived exertion of 5–6 performed twice a week. Individuals were assessed for physical function and functional classification change (low, moderate or high) by the short physical performance battery (SPPB) and muscle strength measures.

Results:

Postintervention, significant differences were found between groups for SPPB—Chair Stand [F(1,22) = 9.14, P < .01, η = .29] and SPPB—Total Score [F(1,22) = 7.40, P < .05, η = .25]. Functional classification was improved as a result of the intervention with 83% of participants in the RT group improving from low to moderate functioning or moderate to high functioning. Strength significantly improved on all exercises in the RT compared with the CON group.

Conclusions:

A RT program congruent with the current ASCM and AHA guidelines is effective to improve overall physical function, functional classification, and muscle strength for older adults with reduced physical abilities.