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Daniel Gould, John Giannini, Vikki Krane and Ken Hodge

The present investigation was designed to develop a profile of the coaching education background and self-perceived coaching education needs of elite U.S. amateur sport coaches. In all, 130 national team, Pan American, and/or Olympic coaches representing more than 30 U.S. Olympic structure sports were surveyed. Results revealed that the coaches were extremely interested in coaching education workshops and seminars, initiating mentor coach programs for potential elite coaches, and participating in a variety of coaching science courses. Few consistent differences were found between the various categories of coaches (individual vs. team sport, open vs. closed sport, experienced vs. inexperienced, male vs. female, and physical education degree vs. non physical education degree) in terms of their coaching education background and needs. Implications for university based coaching education efforts are discussed.

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Cassidy Preston and Jessica Fraser-Thomas

contributing to potential changes in sport organizations, coach education resources and programs, and wider sport policies. References Adie , J.W. , Duda , J.L. , & Ntoumanis , N. ( 2012 ). Perceived coach-autonomy support, basic need satisfaction and the well- and ill-being of elite youth soccer

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Bård Erlend Solstad, Andreas Ivarsson, Ellen Merethe Haug and Yngvar Ommundsen

, & Bongaardt, 2015 ; Langan et al., 2013 ), it seems safe to argue that many coaches who attend coach education may be doing so because they feel obliged to do so. In other words, coaches may be pursuing the activity (i.e., attending the coach education workshop) on the basis of controlled motives. Moreover

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Si Hui Regina Lim, Koon Teck Koh and Melvin Chan

that coaches intentionally withheld emotional support from youth athletes recovering from injuries in fear of disrupting the training routines of active players. Additionally, coach education programmes related to values and life skills instruction are often brief. This constrains the ability of

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Ronald W. Quinn, Sheri Huckleberry and Sam Snow

Coaching education has been part of the United States soccer landscape for over 40 years. However, the education of youth soccer coaches is a recent phenomenon. The purpose of this study was threefold: a) to provide contextual reflections of the USSF National Youth Coaching License (NYL); b) to share the impact of the course on coaching efficacy; and 3) to critically discuss the implications of the lessons learned through these reflections and research on the design of quality coach education for youth sport coaches. The statistical evidence in conjunction with reflective comments demonstrate that The Game in the Child model and the NYL curriculum provide the contextual framework for an effective L-S coaching education program.

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Donna Duffy and Brian Loy

Despite the apparent positive impact that coaching education programs have on the attitudes and behaviors of volunteer youth sport coaches, few programs exist to actually educate these coaches (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2001; Gould et al., 1990). The organizations that coordinate youth sport leagues have an obligation to train these volunteer coaches, but few coaches receive training and if they do receive training, it is often lacking in specific developmental areas. There are also often differences between the coaching education programs that do exist and what volunteer coaches actually want to learn and need to learn.

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Martin Camiré, Tanya Forneris and Pierre Trudel

Coaching for positive youth development (PYD) in the context of high school sport is a complex process given that many factors influence this environment. The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of high school coaches to facilitate PYD from the perspective of administrators, coaches, and athletes. Although stakeholders in general perceive coaches as having the ability to facilitate PYD, scores for coaches were higher than athletes and administrators and scores for athletes were higher than administrators. Furthermore, coaches who participated in coach education perceived themselves as having a greater ability to facilitate PYD compared to coaches with no coach education.

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Ian Reade and Wendy Rodgers

This study asked a group of coaches about the major challenges they encounter in their coaching experience. The study was conducted with a group that had recently completed an introductory coaching course, but they had widely varied coaching experience, and coached male and female athletes in a variety of sports at multiple levels. We were interested in the extent to which the challenges were specific to the coaches’ context, or varied according to the age, education or experience of the coach. Our results showed that coaches face multiple challenges, but dealing with parents was commonly cited as the most challenging in all contexts, indicating that a generic coach education program on this topic could be effective. Other challenges tended to be associated with specific contexts and generic coach education programs may not be able to effectively prepare coaches for those challenges.

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Daniel Gould, Nicole Damarjian and Russell Medbery

The effects of mental skills training in youth sport have been well documented (Efran, Lessor, & Spiller, 1994; Li-Wei, Qi-Wei, Orlick, & Zitzelsberger, 1992; Wanlin, Hrycaiko, Martin, & Mahon, 1997). This investigation focused on understanding why mental skills training information is not being used by junior tennis coaches and identifying better ways to convey this information to coaches. Focus-group interviews were conducted with 20 elite junior tennis coaches. Results revealed a need for more mental skills training coach education on content information. Understanding how to teach mental skills was also emphasized, as was the need for coaches to become more comfortable with this process. Coaches suggested that mental skills training information could be made more user-friendly through development of hands-on concrete examples and activities, increased mental skills training resources (particularly audio and video formats), and involvement in mental skills coach education efforts.

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Katie Kilty

The purpose of this article is to review the challenges that women coaches must overcome and to discuss coach education strategies for facilitating the development of women coaches. Changes in representation of women in positions of leadership in sport have created a social context in which the experience of female coaches is referenced from a predominantly male perspective. As such, recurring issues elicited by attendees at the USOC/NCAA sponsored Women in Coaching Conferences are discussed. Coach education strategies are addressed in three main areas: (a) the continuation of women and sport programs, (b) restructuring the work environment to recognize and value relational work skills, and (c) relational mentoring models to navigate career and life transitions and advocate for change.