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Barbara Resnick, Elizabeth Galik, Marie Boltz, Erin Vigne, Sarah Holmes, Steven Fix and Shijun Zhu

living in these settings. First, we hypothesized that when controlling for age, gender, cognition, setting, and function, those who engaged in moderate or vigorous activity would not be at greater risk of falling than those who did not. Second, we hypothesized that those who engaged in the recommended

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Jing Liao, Yung-Jen Yang and Dong (Roman) Xu

Through lively music and coordinated dance movements, square dancing also engages various cognitions, such as executive function, memory, and motor skills. 7 In addition, square dancing creates a socially enriched environment for participants to interact with peers. 5 Square dancing is physically and

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Maria-Christina Kosteli, Jennifer Cumming and Sarah E. Williams

increase, and these in turn can strengthen the beliefs about the positive outcomes from engaging in PA ( Hall, 1995 ). Overall, these results suggest that self-regulatory imagery is a potentially powerful tool for influencing exercise-related cognitions. Higher levels of self-regulatory imagery were also

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Kayla Regan, Felicia White, David Harvey and Laura E. Middleton

quality of life and mental well-being than people with healthy cognition ( Enache, Winblad, & Aarsland, 2011 ; Thyrian et al., 2016 ; Winter, Korchounov, Zhukova, & Bertschi, 2011 ). Their care partners also have poor health outcomes, including a high risk for depression, anxiety, and cardiovascular

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Daniel J. Madigan, Thomas Curran, Joachim Stoeber, Andrew P. Hill, Martin M. Smith and Louis Passfield

athlete engagement (e.g.,  Gaudreau & Verner-Filion, 2012 ; Jowett, Hill, Hall, & Curran, 2016 ; Madigan, Hill, Anstiss, Mallinson-Howard, & Kumar, 2018 ). On the other hand, under conditions of failure, perfectionistic strivings predict decrements in performance and negative cognitions, and emotions

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Edward Hebert

 al., 1999 ). In explaining the findings, Adams ( 1986 ), and others (e.g.,  Blandin & Proteau, 2000 ; Lee & White, 1990 ) proposed that, when watching a learning model, the observer engages in problem solving cognitions that form the basis of motor learning, including appraising/evaluating actions and

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Fabrice Dosseville, Sylvain Laborde and Markus Raab

We studied the influence of contextual factors and the referees’ own motor experience on the quality of their perceptual judgments. The theoretical framework combined the social cognition approach with the embodied cognition, and enabled us to determine whether judgments were biased or not by using a combination of contextual and internal factors. Sixty fully-qualified and aspiring judo referees were tested in a video-based decision-making task in which they had to decide when to stop the ground contact phase. The decision task differed depending on whether one contestant dominated the other or whether they were equal in the prior phase. Results indicated that the referees’ motor experience influenced perceptual judgments and interacted with contextual factors, enhancing the need for a combination of social and embodied cognition to explain biases in referees’ judgments. Practical considerations were discussed in this paper, such as, whether referees need recent motor experience and how this could influence rules of governing bodies for officiating.

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Katherine A. Bond and Joanne Batey

This study explores the relationship between self-cognitions and running behavior in a group of female recreational runners. Consistent with theories of self-esteem and exerciser self-schemata, it aims to identify how running can impact on the self, and how self-cognitions can influence motivation and adherence to running. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 women of varying age, ability, and running experience who had entered a major women’s 10K race. Inductive data analysis revealed that there was a bi-directional relationship between running involvement and self-cognitions. Running provided experiences which led to enhanced self-esteem, notably through perceived improvements to the physical self, but also through increases in mastery/achievement and physical competence. These changes contributed to the value of running for the women, strengthened their exercise self-schema, and increased the likelihood of adherence to running. However, family responsibilities constrained the women in their ability to run, impacting on the exercise-self relationship outlined.

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Jennifer N. Fogarty, Kelly J. Murphy, Bruce McFarlane, Manuel Montero-Odasso, Jennie Wells, Angela K. Troyer, Daniel Trinh, Iris Gutmanis and Kevin T. Hansen

Objective:

It was hypothesized that a combined Taoist Tai Chi (TTC) and a memory intervention program (MIP) would be superior to a MIP alone in improving everyday memory behaviors in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A secondary hypothesis was that TTC would improve cognition, self-reported health status, gait, and balance.

Method:

A total of 48 individuals were randomly assigned to take part in MIP + TTC or MIP alone. The TTC intervention consisted of twenty 90 min sessions. Outcome measures were given at baseline, and after 10 and 22 weeks.

Results:

Both groups significantly increased their memory strategy knowledge and use, ratings of physical health, processing speed, everyday memory, and visual attention. No preferential benefit was found for individuals in the MIP + TTC group on cognition, gait, or balance measures.

Conclusions:

Contrary to expectations, TTC exercise did not specifically improve cognition or physical mobility. Explanations for null findings are explored.

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Simon Davies and John D. West

This article familiarizes sport psychologists, counselors, and coaches with the multimodal approach to enhancing the performance of college athletes. The seven modalities of behavior, affect, sensations, imagery, cognitions, interpersonal relations, and biological functioning are examined. An individualized modality profile for a collegiate soccer player with performance problems is generated. Various applied intervention techniques are suggested to facilitate performance enhancement.