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Alexander J. Bedard, Kevin A. Bigelman, Lynn R. Fielitz, Jeffrey D. Coelho, William B. Kobbe, Renard O. Barone, Nicholas H. Gist and John E. Palmer

graded bouts where each student is pitted against another of comparable body weight and skill level. The goal of the course is not to create competitive amateur boxers, but instead to develop coping strategies for dealing with physiologically- and psychologically-stressful situations. As such, sparring

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Kristen Lucas and E. Whitney G. Moore

for women showed a lack of overall significance, which is different from Iwasaki and Fry’s ( 2016 ) results. This is surprising since the sport context has an inherent competitive component. It had been hypothesized that the group exercise context would be less competitive and promote a more

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Charles Macaulay, Joseph Cooper and Shaun Dougherty

-lot” orientation towards a hyper-competitive arena. High schools maintained a monopoly over the organization of sport from the turn of the 20th century until the inception of Little League Baseball in 1954, which introduced private organizations into the development of youth athletics ( Frankl, 2007 ). The

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Karen McCormack

, McQuillan, & Chapple, 2005 ; Messner, 1990 ). In organized, competitive sport, strength, speed, and aggression are rewarded, leading to elite male performance as the gold standard of athleticism. Action sports, however, can highlight values that challenge the competitive nature of highly publicized team

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Stanley Thangaraj

disappointment linger while mediating pleasures over the life course. As such, I found this chapter instructive and engaging in how Rinehart demonstrated that ideas of competition and competitive pleasure experienced through, not despite, old age. The authors succeed in producing an expansive and nuanced

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Bethany Geckle

would refute any technologies deemed overly competitive and unnatural/artificial. The Olympic motto of “higher, faster, stronger,” conversely, would imply sport promotes a desire to pursue excellence and test the limits of athletic performance with new technologies and practices (p. 80). The impacts of

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Georgia Cervin

The Olympic Games provided the impetus for the international standardization of gymnastics as a competitive sport. Furthermore, cementing Olympic control over gymnastics after the 1896 Games, Article 37 of Greek Law BXKA of 1899 “Concerning gymnastics and contests of gymnastics and sports” declared

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Erin E. Redihan

speaking, outside of a national character and an educated society, there are few things more important to a country’s growth and well-being than competitive athletics. If it is a cliché to say that athletics build character as well as muscle, then I subscribe to this cliché. …If we want to remain

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Udi Carmi and Orr Levental

During its first decade, Israel sent delegations to three Olympic Games: Helsinki (1952), Melbourne (1956) and Rome (1960). 1 No one believed these delegations would attain any outstanding competitive results. Indeed, Israel’s participation in these Olympic Games was motivated more by political

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Dawn Heinecken

little to disrupt past media presentations of the team, which depicted players as “tough and competitive” while emphasizing their heterosexuality and sexual appeal ( Christopherson, Janning, & McConnell, 2002 , p. 183; Shugart, 2003 ). Combining present-day interviews with old home videos filmed by