The psychology of marathon running was studied by employing the cognitive strategies of association and dissociation (Morgan, 1978; Morgan & Pollock, 1977). Two shortcomings in the current literature were cited. These included the failure to study marathon runners in an actual race and the absence of an acceptable theory to explain the use of these strategies. In the present research, runners participating in a marathon were utilized and measures of dissociation, association, performance time, injury, and reasons for running a marathon were taken. The results indicated that motivations may have accounted for the use of cognitive strategies and that injury was not related to dissociation, as previously hypothesized. Additionally, runners overwhelmingly preferred to associate. A new theory regarding the use of these strategies was offered.
Kevin S. Masters and Michael J. Lambert
Eileen Udry, Daniel Gould, Dana Bridges and Suzie Tuffey
It is often assumed that important others can play significant roles in reducing stress among athletes. However, little attention has been given to (a) what specifically these important others say or do to reduce stress (empathize vs. motivate), and (b) how prevalent various types (positive vs. negative) of interactions are. This investigation attempted to fill this void. In-depth retrospective interviews were conducted with athletes who experienced burnout (n = 10) or season-ending injuries (n = 21). Inductive analysis revealed that athletes’ evaluations of the specific behaviors of important others tended to vary according to the stress (burnout vs. injury) experienced. Additionally, frequency analysis revealed that athletes described their interactions with important others as negative more often than as positive. The findings are discussed in relation to current conceptualizations of social interactions.
Yannick A. Balk, Marieke A. Adriaanse, Denise T.D. de Ridder and Catharine Evers
Performing under high pressure is an emotional experience. Hence, the use of emotion regulation strategies may prove to be highly effective in preventing choking under pressure. Using a golf putting task, we investigated the role of arousal on declined sport performance under pressure (pilot study) and the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies in alleviating choking under pressure (main study). The pilot study showed that pressure resulted in decreased performance and this effect was partially mediated by increased arousal. The main study, a field study, showed that whereas the choking effect was observed in the control condition, reappraisal and, particularly, distraction were effective emotion regulation strategies in helping people to cope instead of choke under pressure. These findings suggest that interventions that aim to prevent choking under pressure could benefit from including emotion regulation strategies.
Joon Sung Lee, Dae Hee Kwak and Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove
Athlete endorsers’ transgressions pose a dilemma for loyal fans who have established emotional attachments toward the individual. However, little is known regarding how fans maintain their support for the wrongdoer. Drawing on moral psychology and social identity theory, the current study proposes and examines a conceptual model incorporating athlete identification, moral emotions, moral reasoning strategies, and consumer evaluations. By using an actual scandal involving an NFL player (i.e., Ray Rice), the results show that fan identification suppresses the experience of negative moral emotions but facilitates fans’ moral disengagement processes, which enables fans to support the wrongdoer. Moreover, negative moral emotions motivate the moral coupling process. Findings contribute to the sport consumer behavior literature that highly identified fans seem to regulate negative emotions but deliberately select moral disengagement reasoning strategies to maintain their positive stance toward the wrongdoer and associated brands.
Amber D. Mosewich, Catherine M. Sabiston, Kent C. Kowalski, Patrick Gaudreau and Peter R.E. Crocker
interpret competition settings differently than men, most notably with internal competition reportedly embraced by men but not women. As such, focused efforts to understand the stress process for women athletes is warranted. Women who have not developed effective coping skills to manage sport
Jenna Hussey, Robert Weinberg and Arash Assar
data-collection phases throughout the study (baseline, postintervention, and follow-up). In essence, the purpose of the study was to determine whether, after the mindfulness intervention, there were changes in the dependent variables (i.e., trait anxiety, self-consciousness, coping style). Both
Shuge Zhang, Stuart Beattie, Amanda Pitkethly and Chelsey Dempsey
behaviors of distractibility ( Nideffer, 1993 ; Paulhus, Aks, & Coren, 1990 ), coping with adversity ( Gould, Finch, & Jackson, 1993 ; Poczwardowski & Conroy, 2002 ; Smith & Christensen, 1995 ), and quality of preparation for upcoming competition ( Bull, Albinson, & Shambrook, 1996 ; Orlick & Partington
Jeffrey A. Graham and Marlene A. Dixon
, 2007 ; Dixon & Bruening, 2005 ). Women who are mothers in sport use a wide variety of coping strategies to manage the work–family interface. One of these strategies includes creating and managing a wide network of friends, family, and coworkers who can be called upon to help carry the load of
James R. Vallerand, Ryan E. Rhodes, Gordan J. Walker and Kerry S. Courneya
, action planning, coping planning, and social support) are thought to help initial behavior change, whereas the development of reflexive processes over time (ie, habit, identity, obligation, anticipated regret, and regulation of the attractiveness of alternative activities) are important for behavioral maintenance
Aubrey Newland, Rich Gitelson and W. Eric Legg
evidence supporting the importance of grit for achievement. Mental skills may be one way that participants develop grit. Mental skills have been identified as the coping processes athletes use to respond to challenges and setbacks in practices and games ( Gano-Overway, Steele, Boyce, & Whaley, 2017