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Rachel W. Thompson, Keith A. Kaufman, Lilian A. De Petrillo, Carol R. Glass and Diane B. Arnkoff

The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the long-term effects of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE), a program designed to improve athletic performance and psychological aspects of sport. One-year follow-up assessments were conducted on archers, golfers, and long-distance runners (N = 25) who attended Kaufman, Glass, and Arnkoff’s (2009) and De Petrillo, Kaufman, Glass, and Arnkoff’s (2009) MSPE workshops. Across the athlete groups, participants reported significant increases in the ability to act with awareness (an aspect of trait mindfulness) and overall trait mindfulness from pretest to follow-up, along with significant decreases in task-related worries and task-irrelevant thoughts (both aspects of cognitive interference during sport). The long-distance runners exhibited significant improvement in their mile times from pretest to follow-up, with significant correlations between change in runners’ performance and trait variables. Results suggest that MSPE is a promising intervention associated with long-term changes in trait variables that may contribute to optimal athletic performance.

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Malte Krüger, Markus de Mareés, Karl-Heinrich Dittmar, Billy Sperlich and Joachim Mester

Purpose:

To examine the effects of a whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) protocol (3 min at –110°C) on acute recovery and key variables of endurance performance during high-intensity intermittent exercise in a thermoneutral environment.

Methods:

Eleven endurance athletes were tested twice in a randomized crossover design in which 5 × 5 min of high-intensity running (HIR) were followed by 1 h of passive rest at ~22°C, including either 3 min of whole-body exposure to –110°C (WBC) or a placebo intervention of 3 min walking (PBO). A ramp-test protocol was performed before HIR (R1) and after the 1-h recovery period (R2). Time to exhaustion (tlim) was measured along with alterations in oxygen content of the vastus lateralis (TSI), oxygen consumption (VO2), capillary blood lactate, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during submaximal and maximal running.

Results:

The difference in tlim between R1 and R2 was lower in WBC than in PBO (P < .05, effect size d = 1.13). During R2, TSI was higher in WBC during submaximal and maximal running (P < .01, d = 0.68−1.01). In addition, VO2, HR, and RPE were lower at submaximal level of R2 after WBC than in PBO (P = .04 to <.01, d = 0.23−0.83).

Conclusion:

WBC improves acute recovery during high-intensity intermittent exercise in thermoneutral conditions. The improvements might be induced by enhanced oxygenation of the working muscles, as well as a reduction in cardiovascular strain and increased work economy at submaximal intensities.

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Saied Jalal Aboodarda, Ashril Yusof, N.A. Abu Osman, Martin W. Thompson and A. Halim Mokhtar

Purpose:

To identify the effect of additional elastic force on the kinetic and kinematic characteristics, as well as the magnitude of leg stiffness, during the performance of accentuated countermovement jumps (CMJs).

Methods:

Fifteen trained male subjects performed 3 types of CMJ including free CMJ (FCMJ; ie, body weight), ACMJ-20, and ACMJ-30 (ie, accentuated eccentric CMJ with downward tensile force equivalent to 20% and 30% body mass, respectively). A force platform synchronized with 6 high-speed infrared cameras was used to measure vertical ground-reaction force (VGRF) and displacement.

Results:

Using downward tensile force during the lowering phase of a CMJ and releasing the bands at the start of the concentric phase increased maximal concentric VGRF (6.34%), power output (23.21%), net impulse (16.65%), and jump height (9.52%) in ACMJ-30 compared with FCMJ (all P < .05). However, no significant difference was observed in the magnitude of leg stiffness between the 3 modes of jump. The results indicate that using downward recoil force of the elastic material during the eccentric phase of a CMJ could be an effective method to enhance jump performance by applying a greater eccentric loading on the parallel and series elastic components coupled with the release of stored elastic energy.

Conclusions:

The importance of this finding is related to the proposition that power output, net impulse, takeoff velocity, and jump height are the key parameters for successful athletic performance, and any training method that improves impulse and power production may improve sports performance, particularly in jumping aspects of sport.

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Juan Del Coso, Alberto Pérez-López, Javier Abian-Vicen, Juan Jose Salinero, Beatriz Lara and David Valadés

There are no scientific data about the effects of caffeine intake on volleyball performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a caffeine-containing energy drink to enhance physical performance in male volleyball players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used. In 2 different sessions separated by 1 wk, 15 college volleyball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min, participants performed volleyball-specific tests: standing spike test, maximal squat jump (SJ), maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), 15-s rebound jump test (15RJ), and agility T-test. Later, a simulated volleyball match was played and recorded. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased ball velocity in the spike test (73 ± 9 vs 75 ± 10 km/h, P < .05) and the mean jump height in SJ (31.1 ± 4.3 vs 32.7 ± 4.2 cm, P < .05), CMJ (35.9 ± 4.6 vs 37.7 ± 4.4 cm, P < .05), and 15RJ (29.0 ± 4.0 vs 30.5 ± 4.6 cm, P < .05). The time to complete the agility test was significantly reduced with the caffeinated energy drink (10.8 ± 0.7 vs 10.3 ± 0.4 s, P < .05). In addition, players performed successful volleyball actions more frequently (24.6% ± 14.3% vs 34.3% ± 16.5%, P < .05) with the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink than with the placebo drink during the simulated game. A caffeine-containing energy drink, with a dose equivalent to 3 mg of caffeine per kg body mass, might be an effective ergogenic aid to improve physical performance and accuracy in male volleyball players.

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Michael S. Green, Benjamin T. Corona, J. Andrew Doyle and Christopher P. Ingalls

This study examined the effects of carbohydrate (CHO), carbohydrate-protein (CHO+PRO), or placebo (PLA) beverages on recovery from novel eccentric exercise. Female participants performed 30 min of downhill treadmill running (–12% grade, 8.0 mph), followed by consumption of a CHO, CHO+PRO, or PLA beverage immediately, 30, and 60 min after exercise. CHO and CHO+PRO groups (n = 6 per group) consumed 1.2 g · kg body weight–1 · hr–1 CHO, with the CHO+PRO group consuming an additional 0.3 g · kg body weight–1 · hr–1 PRO. The PLA group (n = 6) received an isovolumetric noncaloric beverage. Maximal isometric quadriceps strength (QUAD), lower extremity muscle soreness (SOR), and serum creatine kinase (CK) were assessed preinjury (PRE) and immediately and 1, 2, and 3 d postinjury to assess exercise-induced muscle injury and rate of recovery. There was no effect of treatment on recovery of QUAD (p = .21), SOR (p = .56), or CK (p = .59). In all groups, QUAD was reduced compared with PRE by 20.6% ± 1.5%, 17.2% ± 2.3%, and 11.3% ± 2.3% immediately, 1, and 2 d postinjury, respectively (p < .05). SOR peaked at 2 d postinjury (PRE vs. 2 d, 3.1 ± 1.0 vs. 54.0 ± 4.8 mm, p < .01), and serum CK peaked 1 d postinjury (PRE vs. 1 d, 138 ± 47 vs. 757 ± 144 U/L, p < .01). In conclusion, consuming a CHO+PRO or CHO beverage immediately after novel eccentric exercise failed to enhance recovery of exercise-induced muscle injury differently than what was observed with a PLA drink.

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Martin J. Barwood, Joe Kupusarevic and Stuart Goodall

explored experimentally, which may mean concluding a lack of ergogenic effect is premature. To date, we have explored whether relieving thermal discomfort and improving TS are performance enhancing prior to and during the early minutes of a 40-km cycling time trial (TT); it was not. 8 We have examined

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

Numerous nutritional products are marketed with claims of optimizing athlete health and function and/or enhancing performance. Products that fall under the banner of “Sports Foods” or “Dietary Supplements,” may be used to support performance during training and competition or for enhancing aspects

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Rory J. Mack, Jeff D. Breckon, Paul D. O’Halloran and Joanne Butt

interventions such as CBT can be enhanced by applying an underpinning/adjunct approach such as motivational interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2013 ) to form an integrative MI-CBT (athlete-centered) therapy. While this integrative approach is becoming well understood and commonly applied in health settings

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Nadège Levallet, Norm O’Reilly, Elizabeth Wanless, Michael Naraine, Ethan Alkon and Wade Longmire

level of innovativeness, including the technology and fan community, especially in a collegiate event context ( Yoshida, James, & Cronin, 2013 ). According to these findings, stadium upgrade in the form of Wi-Fi network infrastructure could have positive effects on the fan experience by enhancing the

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Jason A. Schisler and C. David Ianuzzo

Purpose:

This study determined if recreational type of endurance exercise is limited by a short-term fast, such as an overnight fast or benefited by a carbohydrate supplement prior to and during endurance exercise.

Methods:

Six individuals ran at 70% VO2max for 90 min under three dietary conditions (fed, fasted for 16 to 18 h, fasted plus CHO).

Results:

RPE, RER, BG (blood glucose), and La (lactate) were similar between conditions throughout 90 min of exercise. FFA was higher (P ≤ 0.05) only in the fed and fasted groups after exercise.

Conclusion:

The psychosomatic sensation, physiologic, and metabolic data all indicated that endurance exercise for up to 90 min for fit individuals is not limited by a short-term fast or enhanced by carbohydrate supplementation. These findings are of interest to persons who exercise to maintain and enhance health and are not concerned with elite performance.