One of the implicit justifications for antidoping is that athletes are so committed to winning that they will take performance-enhancing substances regardless of the apparent consequences. Athletes are alleged to be, quite literally, willing to die to win. Support for this claim usually centers on the results of research by physician Bob Goldman, in which athletes were asked to respond to a hypothetical dilemma in which they were offered spectacular success in their chosen sport, but at a heavy price: they would die after five years of glory. In this paper, we examine the origins of this bargain, now popularly referred to as the Goldman dilemma, finding that both the methodology and implications of the original work have repeatedly been described inaccurately in both popular and scientific writings. These errors reflect both poor scholarship and deliberate misuse, where the flawed narrative is used to justify contentious policy decisions.
Stephen Moston, Brendan Hutchinson and Terry Engelberg
Brian A. Turner and Packianathan Chelladurai
Three hundred twenty-eight intercollegiate coaches (men = 240, women = 88; Division I = 156, Division III = 172) responded to a questionnaire measuring commitment to their university and coaching occupation, intention to leave the organization and occupation, their team standings, and perceptions of their performance. The variables of division, gender, and marital/lifestyle status affected neither organizational nor occupational commitments. Organizational commitments of affective, normative, continuance: high sacrifice, and continuance: low alternatives correlated significantly with intention to leave the organization and cumulatively explained 23.7% of the variance. Affective, normative, and continuance: low alternatives forms of commitment to occupation correlated significantly with intention to leave the occupation and cumulatively explained 23.1% of the variance. The bases of organizational commitment cumulatively explained 5.6% and 4.9% of the variance in subjective and objective performances, respectively. Results suggest that athletic departments should focus on enhancing their coaches’ commitment to the organization in order to retain them.
Brody J. Ruihley and Robin L. Hardin
Fantasy sport joins competition, sport knowledge, and socialization into one interactive sport activity. This research specifically focuses on the socialization aspects of the activity. This analysis addresses overall satisfaction in fantasy sport, future intentions to return to the activity, and reasons why fantasy sport users (FSUs) do or do not use message boards. Data were collected from 322 FSUs in a questionnaire format using quantitative-scale items and qualitative open-ended questions. The results indicate 62.1% (n = 200) of the sample using message boards in their fantasy sport experience. Reasons for their use were based on the themes of logistical conversation, socializing, surveillance, and advice or opinion. FSUs chose not to use message boards for reasons based on no interest, information, time, and alternative options. Other results indicate that those using message boards have higher overall satisfaction and future use intentions than those not using message boards. This suggests that message boards enhance the fantasy sport experience.
Deborah L. Kerstetter and Georgia M. Kovich
The primary purpose of this study was to substantiate the multidimensionality of the involvement construct in a college sport context as measured · by the Consumer Involvement Profile (IP) instrument. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship between individual spectators' sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics and involvement. A principal axis factor analysis, using an oblique rotation, determined that two involvement dimensions with eigenvalues greater than 1.OO and accounting for 63% of the variance existed. MÁNOVA and ÁNOVA procedures revealed a significant relationship (.05 level using the Scheffe criterion) between involvement and five independent variables. The multidimensional nature of the involvement construct was substantiated but did not duplicate earlier work by numerous authors. The relationships documented via the ANOVA procedure also challenged earlier work. Further research using the IP instrument with sports spectators would enhance our understanding of their involvement profile.
Bo Li, Sarah Stokowski, Stephen W. Dittmore and Olan K. M. Scott
Informed by framing theory, the study strove to investigate nationalism by examining Chinese newspaper coverage of the 2014 Incheon Asian Games. Through document and textual analysis of 324 articles from 5 mainstream newspapers, the study indicated that Chinese newspapers always portrayed Chinese athletes as “dominating the competition” and “lacking opponents in Asia” while portraying other countries’ athletes as “less competitive” and not at the “level of Chinese athletes.” The results also suggested that Chinese newspapers tried to positively spin the story when reporting the failure of Chinese athletes at the Asian Games. However, to increase readership and enhance public awareness of the Asian Games,Chinese newspapers also attempted to created rivalries between Chinese athletes and competing nations and, at times, emphasized national failures.
Charles L. Martin
Popular, trade, and academic literature support the intuitively obvious notion that good customer relations behaviors enhance customer satisfaction. The present research investigated such behaviors by customer-contact employees by first assessing their frequency of practice in the bowling industry. Employees in bowling centers generally failed to practice most of the 16 relationship-building behaviors investigated during 62 audits. Next, survey results revealed variations in consumers’ perceptions of the relative importance of employee behaviors. For example, prompt service, a warm welcome, a courteous “thank you,” and refraining from smoking or chewing gum while serving the customer were rated as relatively important by most consumer segments. However, some variation in perceptions were observed across consumer groups, with the differences between league and nonleague bowlers being the most apparent. Recommendations are offered to customer-contact employees and to managers of sports organizations.
Sharon A. Mathes, Amy T. McGivern and Carole M. Schneider
Interest in the potential benefits of exercise and fitness programs has led many corporations to invest in such for their employees. Fitness program directors need to better understand factors that affect employees' decisions to participate. The purpose of this study was to examine whether male and female participants and nonparticipants differed in their conceptual and institutional motives for involvement in a corporate exercise program. The Exercise Program Survey was developed and administered randomly to 310 employees of a metropolitan insurance company. Participants scored items associated with enhancing fitness, reducing stress and learning to relax as more important than nonparticipants did. Participants also indicated that the institutional motive structure was more important, thus emphasizing the need for appropriate times, places, and availability of instruction. Women felt more strongly than men that weight control, fitness, stress reduction, relaxation, and smoking cessation activities were necessary components of a fitness program. Women also scored the structure and health institutional motives as more important.
Diane L. Gill, Ronald G. Morrow, Karen E. Collins, Allison B. Lucey and Allison M. Schultz
This study focused on attitudes and sexual prejudice as part of a larger project on inclusive practice in sport and physical activity settings. Questionnaires were administered to a large sample of undergraduate students and to selected samples of upper-level preprofessional students and a campus pride group to investigate attitudes toward gays and lesbians, and other minority groups. Attitude scores were in the middle range, with females more positive than males toward gay men. Evaluation Thermometer scores were generally positive, but markedly lower for gay men and lesbians than for other minority groups. Upper-level preprofessional students were more positive than other undergraduates, but still expressed negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. These results confirm persistent sexual prejudice, suggest that attention to sexual minorities is particularly important for effective diversity management, and underscore the need for continuing research and educational programs to enhance cultural competence among sport management professionals and future professionals.
Daniel A. Rascher, Mark S. Nagel, Matthew T. Brown and Chad D. McEvoy
A fundamental belief in professional sport leagues is that competitive balance is needed to maximize demand and revenues; therefore, leagues have created policies attempting to attain proper competitive balance. Further, research posits that objectives of professional sport teams’ owners include some combination of winning and profit maximization. Although the pursuit of wins is a zero sum game, revenue generation and potential profit making is not. This article focuses upon the National Football League’s potential unintended consequences of creating the incentive for some teams to free ride on the rest of the league’s talent and brand. It examines whether an owner’s objectives to generate increased revenues and profits are potentially enhanced by operating as a continual low-cost provider while making money from the shared revenues and brand value of the league. The present evidence indicates that, overall, being a low-cost provider is more profitable than increasing player salaries in an attempt to win additional games.
Dina Bell-Laroche, Joanne MacLean, Lucie Thibault and Richard Wolfe
This study examined sport leaders’ perceptions of the use of stated values in the management and performance of their organization. Qualitative data were collected from nine Canadian national sport organizations (NSOs) in a multiple-case studies design, involving analysis of interview transcripts. Results indicated that while many of the NSOs operated from a traditional management by objectives approach, they perceived management by values (MBV) as being important and contributing to enhanced organizational performance. Leaders indicated that more efforts to engage staff members in developing core organizational values and to strategically use values in day-to-day management practice were required. A 4-I Framework describing how an NSO can progress through different stages of strategically using values in management practice was developed. NSO leaders also voiced an interest in embedding organizational values into NSO strategic and other planning processes.