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Andrea Torres, Bethany Tennant, Isabela Ribeiro-Lucas, Alison Vaux-Bjerke, Katrina Piercy and Bonny Bloodgood

and health. 4 In 2016, the Secretary of the US Department of Health and Human Services appointed 17 nationally recognized experts in the field of physical activity and health to the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee (committee). The committee was responsible for reviewing the

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William P. Berg and Nancy L. Greer

This study determined the kinematics of the final 11 steps of the long jump approach (LJA) for 19 novice long jumpers. Associations between takeoff accuracy and jump performance were identified, and comparisons of LJA kinematics were made with previous investigations of horizontal jumps performed by expert long jumpers. Results indicated that absolute takeoff error was not an important determinant of jump distance for the novice long jumpers. Additionally, novice jumpers differed from expert jumpers in terms of the relationships among specific variables. The results suggest that kinematic variables that appear to be causally related to jump performance in experts may not piay a similar role in the performance of novices. Hypotheses for these differences were offered. Differences between the LJAs of novice and expert long jumpers warrant further investigation, so that their origins can be determined and used to develop effective training regimes.

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Paul G. Schempp, Dean Manross, Steven K.S. Tan and Matthew D. Fincher

The purpose of the study was to ascertain the influence of subject matter expertise on teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge. Data were collected through multiple, extended interviews with 10 teachers with expertise in at least 1 subject area in physical education. Each teacher was interviewed 4 times for approximately 1 hour, focusing on the teacher’s familiarity with 2 content areas (1 expert and 1 nonexpert) and their experiences teaching the subjects. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative technique. The findings were presented with reference to Grossman’s (1990) definition of pedagogical content knowledge. Subject experts identified their largest pedagogical problem as student motivation, while nonexperts believed finding appropriate activities was their greatest challenge. Subject experts were more comfortable and enthusiastic about pedagogical duties and could accommodate a greater range of abilities. The experts and nonexperts revealed no differences in curricular selection, perceptions of students’ understanding of the subject, or evaluation criteria.

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Claude Goulet, Chantai Bard and Michelle Fleury

Two experiments were conducted to analyze the performance of expert and novice tennis players. For testing purposes, 16-mm films were used. Subjects in both studies had to identify the type of serve presented (flat, top-spin, sliced). In Experiment 1, visual search patterns were investigated. During the ritual phase, experts focus on the shoulder/trunk areas whereas novices concentrate their search around the head of the server. During the execution phase, experts concentrate on the racquet whereas novices use more cues. Using the technique of temporal visual occlusion, the speed and accuracy of decisional processes were investigated in a second study. Results showed that expert players select valuable information during the preparatory phase and during the first part of. the execution phase. Novices must see the ritual phase until ball/racquet impact to be as accurate. Results emphasize the importance of combining sampling of eye movement and behavior parameters to sharpen our understanding of the perceptual processes underlying motor sport performance.

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Christopher M. Janelle, Charles H. Hillman, Ross J. Apparies, Nicholas P. Murray, Launi Meili, Elizabeth A. Fallon and Bradley D. Hatfield

The purpose of this study was to examine whether variability in gaze behavior and cortical activation would differentiate expert (n = 12) and nonexpert (n = 13) small-bore rifle shooters. Spectral-activity and eye-movement data were collected concurrently during the course of a regulation indoor sequence of 40 shots from the standing position. Experts exhibited significantly superior shooting performance, as well as a significantly longer quiet eye period preceding shot execution than did nonexperts. Additionally, expertise interacted with hemispheric activation levels: Experts demonstrated a significant increase in left-hemisphere alpha and beta power, accompanied by a reduction in right-hemisphere alpha and beta power, during the preparatory period just prior to the shot. Nonexperts exhibited similar hemispheric asymmetry, but to a lesser extent than did experts. Findings suggest systematic expertise-related differences in ocular and cortical activity during the preparatory phase leading up to the trigger pull that reflects more optimal organization of the neural structures needed to achieve high-level performance.

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Arne Jaspers, Tim Op De Beéck, Michel S. Brink, Wouter G.P. Frencken, Filip Staes, Jesse J. Davis and Werner F. Helsen

the RPE, often without correcting for multicollinearity or using expert knowledge to hand-select a set of ELIs. This can aid in evaluating newly developed external load metrics that come with improved tracking systems such as GPS technology and inertial movement sensors. 11 Another advantage of

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

& Burke, 2012 ). Knowledge and practice of nutrition evolve over time and must be constantly updated and integrated into the Athlete’s preparation. Indeed, in the decade since the last IAAF consensus meeting, a range of new developments in sports nutrition has been recognized globally by expert bodies

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Laura St. Germain, Amanda M. Rymal and David J. Hancock

, Balch & Co . Ericsson , K.A. , Krampe , R.T. , & Tesch-Römer , C. ( 1993 ). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance . Psychological Review, 100 , 363 – 406 . doi:10.1037/0033-295X.100.3.363 10.1037/0033-295X.100.3.363 Hancock , D.J. , Martin , L.J. , Evans

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Fotini Venetsanou, Irene Kossyva, Nadia Valentini, Anastasia-Evangelia Afthentopoulou and Lisa Barnett

). Cross-Cultural Adaptation First, the English version of the PMSC was translated into Greek by two independent translators who were native Greek speakers with a high level of English language knowledge. The two translations were synthesized into a single Greek version by a panel of experts. Two

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Tricia Majewski-Schrage, Todd A. Evans and Brian Ragan


Despite widespread acceptance, there is currently no consensus on the definition, components, and the specific techniques most appropriate to measure and quantify core stability.


To develop a comprehensive core-stability model addressing its definition, components, and assessment techniques.


Delphi technique.


University laboratory.


15 content experts from United States and Canada, representing a variety of disciplines.

Main Outcome Measure:

The authors distributed an open-ended questionnaire pertaining to a core-stability definition, components, and assessment techniques specific to each expert. They collected data over 2 rounds of telephone interviews. They concluded data collection once a consensus was achieved that equated with 51% agreement among respondents.


The authors developed a working definition of core stability as the ability to achieve and sustain control of the trunk region at rest and during precise movement. Eighty-three percent of the experts considered the definition satisfactory. Therefore, the definition was accepted. Furthermore, the experts agreed that muscles (14/15 = 93.3%) and neuromuscular control (8/12 = 66.7%) were components of core stability. Assessment techniques were identified and inconsistencies were highlighted; however, no consensus was established.


A consensus core-stability definition was created and 2 components were identified. However, of the initial definitions provided by the experts, no 2 were identical, which revealed the inconsistencies among experts and the importance of this study. Nonetheless, the goal of obtaining a consensus definition was obtained. Although a consensus for the assessment techniques of core stability could not be reached, it was a beneficial starting point to identify the inconsistencies that were discovered among the content experts.