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Alexei Wong, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Yi-Sub Kwak and Song-Young Park

counter regulated in vivo and exert opposing effects on glucose metabolism, fat oxidation, and insulin sensitivity ( 9 , 47 ). The findings of this study indicate that CET produced a significant (although a time effect only) increase in adiponectin and decrease in leptin, reflecting an improved metabolic

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Alannah K. A. McKay, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers and Gregory R. Cox

higher reliance on fat oxidation, greater metabolic stress, and cellular adaptation ( Bartlett et al., 2015 ). Although careful integration of such strategies can enhance adaptation and performance ( Marquet et al., 2016 ), the potential implications on athlete health are relatively unknown. Accordingly

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Andrew J. Carnes and Sara E. Mahoney

affect fat oxidation and/or glycogen degradation at prolonged submaximal intensities. Further research is needed to elucidate how physiologic adaptations differ between CFE and POL, and from a practical perspective how this could impact their effect on events >5 km. Differences between CFE and POL could

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fat oxidation rates (0.10 g.min -1 and 0.17 g.min -1 , respectively, F (1,30)  = 34.82, p  < 0.001), energy expenditure ( M  = 1.28, SD  = 0.26 versus M  = 1.48, SD  = 0.35 kcal.min -1 , F (1,30)  = 20.759, p  < 0.001), excess post-exercise oxygen consumption values ( M  = 1.91, SD  = 0.60 and

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Katja Krustrup Pedersen, Esben Lykke Skovgaard, Ryan Larsen, Mikkel Stengaard, Søren Sørensen and Kristian Overgaard

extend previous research and support the use of thigh-placed accelerometers for assessment of PA involving walking and running. References Achten , J. , Gleeson , M. , & Jeukendrup , A.E. ( 2002 ). Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation . Medicine & Science in

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

loss is the creation of an energy imbalance resulting in a net energy expenditure, and a number of supplements have been proposed to promote fat loss through a variety of mechanisms including increased fat oxidation and thermogenic effects (increased energy expenditure) ( Jeukendrup & Randell, 2011

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Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P. Andersson, Oliver M. Shannon, Stig Mattsson and Anna Melin

. Despite the need for high carbohydrate intakes, performing selected training sessions in a glycogen-depleted state can promote training adaptations, such as increased fat oxidation ( Bartlett et al., 2015 ; Philip et al., 2012 ), which may be a favorable physiological adaptation during base

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

relatively unlimited pool size and capacity to support exercise at intensities up to ∼75–80% VO 2 peak. However, it should also be noted that most ultramarathon runners already have a high capacity for fat oxidation, regardless of dietary background. Furthermore, although targeted adaptation to a high

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

/or lipolytic-enhancing agent Small-to-trivial effect ( Jurgens et al., 2012 ) α-Lipoic acid No clear role, but possible antioxidant Small-to-trivial effect ( Kucukgoncu et al., 2017 ) Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) Changes membrane fluidity favoring enhanced fat oxidation Small-to-trivial effect ( Onakpoya et

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

performance. 123 , 124 Although well-trained athletes have an enhanced capacity for fat oxidation, their ability to use their relatively large fat stores as an exercise substrate is clearly not maximized because it can be further upregulated by switching to a low-CHO, high-fat diet (LCHF). Indeed, short