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Alannah K. A. McKay, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers and Gregory R. Cox

higher reliance on fat oxidation, greater metabolic stress, and cellular adaptation ( Bartlett et al., 2015 ). Although careful integration of such strategies can enhance adaptation and performance ( Marquet et al., 2016 ), the potential implications on athlete health are relatively unknown. Accordingly

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Simone A. Tomaz, Trina Hinkley, Rachel A. Jones, Rhian Twine, Kathleen Kahn, Shane A. Norris and Catherine E. Draper

.1093/sleep/17.3.201 7939118 33. Said-Mohamed R , Bernard JY , Ndzana A-C , Pasquet P . Is overweight in stunted preschool children in Cameroon related to reductions in fat oxidation, resting energy expenditure and physical activity? PLoS One . 2012 ; 7 ( 6 ): e39007 . PubMed ID: 22701741 doi

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Yasmeen Mezil, J. Obeid, Sandeep Raha, Thomas J. Hawke and Brian W. Timmons

addition to physical characteristics, children and adults also exhibit differential exercise metabolism, specifically higher reliance on fat oxidation in children relative to adults, which may reduce the need for intracellular signaling of IL-6 in children ( 44 ). The reduction in CX3CL1 concentrations at

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Astrid C.J. Balemans, Han Houdijk, Gilbert R. Koelewijn, Marjolein Piek, Frank Tubbing, Anne Visser-Meily and Olaf Verschuren

standing time during the day. 41 A recent study showed that, comparable with our findings, not only muscle activity but also fat oxidation and circulating glucose level increased with standing. 39 This indicates that including muscle activity, in favor of energy expenditure only, influences metabolic

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fat oxidation rates (0.10 g.min -1 and 0.17 g.min -1 , respectively, F (1,30)  = 34.82, p  < 0.001), energy expenditure ( M  = 1.28, SD  = 0.26 versus M  = 1.48, SD  = 0.35 kcal.min -1 , F (1,30)  = 20.759, p  < 0.001), excess post-exercise oxygen consumption values ( M  = 1.91, SD  = 0.60 and

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Katja Krustrup Pedersen, Esben Lykke Skovgaard, Ryan Larsen, Mikkel Stengaard, Søren Sørensen and Kristian Overgaard

extend previous research and support the use of thigh-placed accelerometers for assessment of PA involving walking and running. References Achten , J. , Gleeson , M. , & Jeukendrup , A.E. ( 2002 ). Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation . Medicine & Science in

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

relatively unlimited pool size and capacity to support exercise at intensities up to ∼75–80% VO 2 peak. However, it should also be noted that most ultramarathon runners already have a high capacity for fat oxidation, regardless of dietary background. Furthermore, although targeted adaptation to a high

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

loss is the creation of an energy imbalance resulting in a net energy expenditure, and a number of supplements have been proposed to promote fat loss through a variety of mechanisms including increased fat oxidation and thermogenic effects (increased energy expenditure) ( Jeukendrup & Randell, 2011

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Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P. Andersson, Oliver M. Shannon, Stig Mattsson and Anna Melin

. Despite the need for high carbohydrate intakes, performing selected training sessions in a glycogen-depleted state can promote training adaptations, such as increased fat oxidation ( Bartlett et al., 2015 ; Philip et al., 2012 ), which may be a favorable physiological adaptation during base

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

/or lipolytic-enhancing agent Small-to-trivial effect ( Jurgens et al., 2012 ) α-Lipoic acid No clear role, but possible antioxidant Small-to-trivial effect ( Kucukgoncu et al., 2017 ) Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) Changes membrane fluidity favoring enhanced fat oxidation Small-to-trivial effect ( Onakpoya et