model building approach will be taken to investigate potential negative associations between components of role strain and domain specific life satisfaction. Method Participants Participants were 112 male junior elite Australian Rules Football (ARF) players who were, on average, 16.8 years of age ( SD
Fleur E.C.A. van Rens, Erika Borkoles, Damian Farrow and Remco C.J. Polman
Ronald J. Maughan, Stuart J. Merson, Nick P. Broad and Susan M. Shirreffs
This study measured fluid balance during a 90-min preseason training session in the first team squad (24 players) of an English Premier League football team. Sweat loss was assessed from changes in body mass after correction for ingested fluids and urine passed. Sweat composition was measured by collection from patches attached to the skin at 4 sites. The weather was warm (24-29 °C), with moderate humidity (46–64%). The mean ± SD body mass loss over the training session was 1.10 ± 0.43 kg, equivalent to a level of dehydration of 1.37 ± 0.54% of the pre-training body mass. Mean fluid intake was 971 ± 303 ml. Estimated total mean sweat loss was 2033 ±413 ml. Mean sweat electrolyte concentrations (mmol/L) were: sodium,49± 12; potassium,6.0± 1.3;chloride, 43 ± 10. Total sweat sodium loss of 99 ± 24 mmol corresponds to a salt (sodium chloride) loss of 5.8 ± 1.4 g. Mean urine osmolality measured on pre-training samples provided by the players was 666 ±311 mosmol/kg (n=21). These data indicate that sweat losses of water and solute in football players in training can be substantial but vary greatly between players even with the same exercise and environmental conditions. Voluntary fluid intake also shows wide inter-individual variability and is generally insufficient to match fluid losses.
Jeff Konin, Michael J. Axe and Ron Courson
The implementation of interval throwing programs during rehabilitation has been suggested in the literature to allow for a quicker and safer return of the throwing athlete to competition. Many programs have clearly focused on baseball players. This program is specifically designed for the football quarterback. The program encompasses a sound flexibility and strength training regime and provides for a supervised step-by-step progression of throwing. Although the authors have found success with early results, practitioners should apply this program with caution, as it may need to be modified for each athlete. The purpose of this paper is to establish a foundation for future work in the area of the throwing shoulder for the football quarterback.
Allen L. Sack
The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which college athletes violate NCAA rules regarding amateurism. A second purpose was to look for patterns of relationships in the data that might yield theoretical insights as to the causes of this type of deviance. Surveys were mailed to a population of 3,500 active and retired National Football League players. About one in three, or 1,182 players, returned the survey. It was found that under-the-table payments were fairly common in major football conferences and that such payments have increased considerably in “Sunbelt schools” over the past couple of decades. Black athletes, regardless of the income of their families of origin, were somewhat more likely than whites to have accepted illegal benefits and to see nothing wrong with violating NCAA rules. Black athletes were also far more likely than whites to have been offered illegal benefits by agents. These findings were examined in light of labeling theory.
There has been a convergence in the study of football hooliganism in the 1990s between the approaches of Clifford Stott and Steve Reicher, and Anthony King, whose work emphasizes the interactional rather than predispositional element to football violence. Instead of looking only to the dispositional factors within the members of the crowd, which past research has emphasized, both Stott and Reicher and King highlight the way in which violent outcomes are the results of mutual interactions between the crowd and other agencies, such as police. Consequently, crowd violence cannot be read off as the automatic result of premeditated intention but should be seen as a complex and potentially contingent occurrence, where prior dispositions inform interactions but do not determine them.
Simon Gavanda, Stephan Geisler, Oliver Jan Quittmann and Thorsten Schiffer
In American football (AF), body size, strength, and power are important factors for performance. 1 Previous studies indicated that 1-repetition maximum (1RM), sprint performance, and vertical jumping ability are important predictors for success in AF. 2 Starters are stronger, more powerful, and
Argyro Elisavet Manoli
An escalating number of crises appear in the sport industry in general and the football industry in particular that make the area of crisis communication an increasingly important matter in both the everyday running and the long-term viability of football. However, the sensitivity of the topic makes an extensive analysis on current practice in crisis communications a particularly challenging task. This study examines how crisis communications is managed by investigating the current practices and techniques employed in English Premier League clubs, as they were presented by communications professionals employed in the clubs. The analysis of the clubs’ practices underlines the lack of proactivity and presents the most popular strategies of crisis-communications management: “Wait for the dust to settle” and “React promptly before the noise grows.” In addition, an underdocumented technique is examined: the use of the informal personal relationships between the employees of the clubs and the members of the media. This study also introduces the “crisis communications management in football” model, which illustrates the practices identified through this study and can potentially act as a guide for crisis-communications analysis in a number of other industries.
Tamara May, Nicole Rinehart, Lisa Barnett, Trina Hinkley, Jane McGillivray, Helen Skouteris, Delwyne Stephens and Debra Goldfinch
. Australian Rules football is a popular team sport played primarily in Australia since its inception in 1858. It involves two teams of 18 players on a large field kicking an oval-shaped ball between two goal posts to score points. The main ways for players to move the ball are to mark (or catch) the ball
Dean Norris, David Joyce, Jason Siegler, James Clock and Ric Lovell
competition) Australian rules football (ARF) players (age: 20.7 [2.4] y, body mass: 83.5 [6.1] kg, stature: 188 [8.2] cm, seasons played: 3 [2.3]) with an average of 40 competitive playing appearances (range: 0–124) volunteered to participate in this investigation. The players represented a mixture of
Nick B. Murray, Tim J. Gabbett and Andrew D. Townshend
Australian football (AF) is a fast-paced, highly intermittent sport requiring players to perform high-intensity activities (ie, sprinting, running, and physical contacts) interspersed with low-speed (ie, walking and jogging) movements. 1 , 2 It is common practice in elite sporting organizations to