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Josep C. Benítez-Martínez, Pablo Martínez-Ramírez, Fermín Valera-Garrido, Jose Casaña-Granell and Francesc Medina-Mirapeix

corticosteroid injections in some cases for a short-term effect, 20 load training modification, 21 and other therapeutic modalities (therapeutic ultrasound, cryotherapy, transverse friction massage, bracing, or taping). 22 Nevertheless, an active debate still exists regarding changes in tendon abnormalities

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Paul F.J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà and Chris R. Abbiss

opposing forces caused by road gradient, air resistance, acceleration, and friction. These forces are calculated using 9 different measurements: 3 accelerometers to measure displacements in the x , y , and z directions; frontal air pressure using a small port at the front of the device; environmental

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Akane Yoshimura, Robert Schleip and Norikazu Hirose

tissue properties through friction between the material and skin, the gastrocnemius muscle treated by FR would become softer after the intervention. Moreover, fascicle lengthening would increase simultaneously with increasing DF ROM following FR intervention on the plantar flexors because FL of the

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Adam Douglas, Michael A. Rotondi, Joseph Baker, Veronica K. Jamnik and Alison K. Macpherson

, and hip adductors. Due to the low coefficient of friction of the ice, the forward propulsion in skating needs to be perpendicular to the gliding direction of the skate, which leads to more horizontal and lateral force production than running or sprinting. 14 As with the use of any technology or

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Figen Govsa, Gkionoul Nteli Chatzioglou, Simin Hepguler, Yelda Pinar and Ozden Bedre

structure and function were sensitive to foot type. Alterations of foot morphology in people with large rearfoot angle are associated with knee pain, disability, and cartilage damage. These structural conditions may result from friction, repetitive stress in forefoot or heel, toe adaptations to shoe shape

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Mark Glaister, Colin Towey, Owen Jeffries, Daniel Muniz-Pumares, Paul Foley and Gillian McInnes

. Winter EM , Brown D , Roberts NKA , Brookes FBC , Swaine IL . Optimized and corrected peak power output during friction-braked cycle ergometry . J Sports Sci . 1996 ; 14 ( 6 ): 513 – 521 . PubMed ID: 8981290 doi:10.1080/02640419608727738 8981290 10.1080/02640419608727738 15. Durnin JV

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Toshimasa Yanai, Akifumi Matsuo, Akira Maeda, Hiroki Nakamoto, Mirai Mizutani, Hiroaki Kanehisa and Tetsuo Fukunaga

force at landing. As pitchers exhibit slight sliding or twisting of the stride foot upon landing even in practice and game situations, neither a highly frictional rigid surface that completely prevents the stride foot from moving nor a slippery surface that induces anticipatory changes in pitching

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Paul F.J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà and Chris R. Abbiss

aerodynamic drag; ρ is the air density; V g is the ground velocity of the participants in m·s −1 ; μ is a global coefficient of friction (ie, 0.006 for rough road 17 ); and F N is the normal force exerted by the bicycle tires on the rolling surface (essentially weight of the bicycle and participant

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Moni Syeda, Jason Bartholomew, Shayane Santiago, Jeff Peterson, Russell T. Baker and Scott W. Cheatham

is textured and is combined with a special balm to allow smoother movements and to increase friction between the skin and tool, 4 while the GT ® protocol utilizes additional adjunct interventions and a specific emollient. Thus, the findings in this study may be as a result of FAT ™ technique

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Kimberly Somers, Dustin Aune, Anthony Horten, James Kim and Julia Rogers

elongation of equal parts of both tendon and muscle fascicles, whereas post stretching ROM gains were secondary to changes in elastic properties of the gastrocnemius muscle rather than the tendon. During self-myofascial release, pressure, undulation, movement, and friction are applied to muscle tissue