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Neil D. Clarke, Darren L. Richardson, James Thie and Richard Taylor

analysis of caffeine concentration using a standard enzyme-linked immunoassay kit (Caffeine ELISA kit; Creative Diagnostics, Shirley, NY). At the same time points, a capillary blood sample was drawn from the index finger for determination of blood glucose and lactate concentrations ( Biosen C-line; EKF

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Vandre C. Figueiredo, Michelle M. Farnfield, Megan L.R. Ross, Petra Gran, Shona L. Halson, Jonathan M. Peake, David Cameron-Smith and James F. Markworth

the recovery period. Muscle samples were taken at rest, immediately after exercise, and again following 3 hr of passive recovery. Venous blood samples were collected at rest and then every 30-min postexercise for 3 hr (Figure  1 ). Data for glucose and insulin levels have been previously reported

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Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino

intraclass correlation coefficient >.99. Venous blood samples were collected after a 12 hr fast and a minimum of 72 hr after the final physical exercise session, according to procedures previously described ( Tomeleri et al., 2016 ) for determining glucose, HDL-c, and triglycerides. Samples were deposited in

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Mark Glaister and Conor Gissane

, which were heart rate, oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 ), RER, V ˙ E , rating of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate concentration [BLa], and blood glucose concentration [BGl]. Measures of RPE were constrained to those evaluated using the 15-point scale. 39 Meta-Analysis From an initial search result of

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Monica Klungland Torstveit, Ida Fahrenholtz, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Øystein Sylta and Anna Melin

within 60 min. Two 1.8 ml Cryotube Vials (Termo Fischer Science, Roskilde, Denmark) were filled with serum and frozen to −75 °C. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose, cortisol, testosterone, and triiodothyronine ( T 3 ) at Sørlandets Hospital in Kristiansand and Aker Hormonlab in Oslo, Norway

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Jennifer Sygo, Alexandra M. Coates, Erik Sesbreno, Margo L. Mountjoy and Jamie F. Burr

) and triiodothyronine, and is associated with menstrual dysfunction and secondary functional hypothalamic amenorrhea in women ( Loucks & Thuma, 2003 ; Nattiv et al., 2007 ). LEA suppresses other hormones and substrates, including insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), glucose, growth hormone

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Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, Bryan Holtzman and Kathryn E. Ackerman

 al., 2010 ). Amylin contributes to glucose regulation and satiety, but we are not aware of any research evaluating amylin levels by EA in either male or female athletes. Incretins, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory peptide, are gut hormones that stimulate insulin release and inhibit

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Allen C. Parcell, Melinda L. Ray, Kristine A. Moss, Timothy M. Ruden, Rick L. Sharp and Douglas S. King

Previous investigations have reported that soluble fiber reduces the plasma glucose and insulin changes after an oral glucose load. To improve the payability of a soluble-fiber feeding, this study addressed how a combined, soluble fiber (delivered in capsule form) and a preexercise CHO feeding would affect metabolic responses during exercise. On 3 different days, participants ingested a placebo (CON), 75 g liquid CHO (GLU), or 75 g liquid CHO with 14.5 g encapsulated guar gum (FIB) 45 min before cycling for 60 min at 70% VO2peak. Peak concentrations of plasma glucose and insulin were similar and significantly greater than CON preexercise (p < .05). Similarities in carbohydrate reliance were observed in GLU and FIB. Muscle glycogen use did not differ significantly among trials. These results demonstrate that encapsulated soluble fiber delivered with a liquid CHO feeding does not affect plasma glucose, insulin, or muscle glycogen utilization during exercise.

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Stephanie K. Gaskell, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe and Ricardo J.S. Costa

challenge. A formulated carbohydrate supplement gel disk containing 30 g of carbohydrates (2∶1 glucose∶fructose) with accompanying temperate water (10% w/v; 316 mOsmol/kg; ∼20 °C water temperature) was ingested at 0 min and every 20 min, thereafter until the completion of the 2-hr steady-state running

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Guihua Zhang, Nobuya Shirai and Hiramitsu Suzuki

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of L-lactic acid on swimming endurance of mice. Mice (n = 50) were injected intraperitoneally with saline, then with L-lactic acid (either 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg body weight), then after 2 days with the same doses of glucose, and after another 2 days again with L-lactic acid at the same doses. Swimming times to exhaustion were determined at 30 min after each injection, in a tank filled with 25 cm of water maintained at 23 °C. After another week, mice were given either saline, L-lactic acid, or glucose (25 or 50 mg/kg) dissolved in saline and sacrificed after 30 min for biochemical analyses. The ratios of swimming times of L-lactic acid or glucose injections to saline injection were calculated as an index for endurance changes. Swimmingtime ratios for mice injected with L-lactic acid were significantly higher at either dose than for those injected with the corresponding doses of glucose (p < .05). The ratio of swimming time was greater in those given a dose of 50 mg/kg than in those given 25 mg/kg for mice in the L-lactic acid groups (p < .05) but not in the groups given glucose. There were no marked differences in biochemical parameters of plasma and muscle lactate, muscle and liver glycogen, or plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acid between the L-lactic acid, glucose, and saline injection groups. These results suggest that L-lactic acid can enhance swimming endurance of mice and that this action is dose dependent.