This study proposed and tested a theoretical explanation of how social class background influences sport participation. Two theoretical constructs of social class were operationalized within the context of sport participation and tested to determine how well they explained the social class-sport participation link: life chances/economic opportunity set (the distribution of material goods and services), and life-styles/social psychological opportunity set (values, beliefs, and practices). Life chances consisted of the availability and usage of sport equipment, facilities or club memberships, and instruction. Life-styles consisted of selected parental achievement and gender role expectations that encourage, fail to encourage, or discourage sport participation. Social class background was determined by father’s occupation as ranked in the Duncan Socioeconomic Index. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a stratified random sample of high school students, with some questionnaires eliminated to control for cultural and/or racial differences and variation in parental influence. The construct validity of the instrument was supported by factor analytic results. The test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was r = .956. Partial correlation analyses revealed that while individual life chances/economic opportunity set variables explained a greater portion of the relationship between sport participation and social class background than did the individual variables of life-styles/social psychological opportunity set, a combination of all three economic opportunity set variables and two social-psychological opportunity set variables accounted for more than 50% of the relationship between sport and class.
Joanne Butt, Robert S. Weinberg, Jeff D. Breckon and Randal P. Claytor
Physical activity (PA) declines as adolescents get older, and the motivational determinants of PA warrant further investigation. The purposes of this study were to investigate the amount of physical and sedentary activity that adolescents participated in across age, gender, and race, and to investigate adolescents’ attraction to PA and their perceived barriers and benefits across age, gender, and race.
High school students (N = 1163) aged between 13 and 16 years completed questionnaires on minutes and intensity of physical and sedentary activity, interests in physical activity, and perceived benefits and barriers to participating in PA.
A series of multivariate analyses of variance were conducted and followed up with discriminant function analysis. PA participation decreased in older females. In addition, fun of physical exertion was a primary attraction to PA for males more than females. Body image as an expected outcome of participating in PA contributed most to gender differences.
There is a need to determine why PA drops-off as females get older. Findings underscore the importance of structuring activities differently to sustain interest in male and female adolescents, and highlights motives of having a healthy body image, and making PA fun to enhance participation.
Kelly R. Laurson, Joey A. Lee and Joey C. Eisenmann
Physical activity (PA), television time (TV), and sleep duration (SLP) are considered individual risk factors for adolescent obesity. Our aim was to investigate the concurrent influence of meeting PA, SLP, and TV recommendations on adolescent obesity utilizing 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) data.
Subjects included 9589 (4874 females) high school students. PA, SLP, and TV were categorized utilizing established national recommendations and youth were cross-tabulated into 1 of 8 groups based on meeting or not meeting each recommendation. Logistic models were used to examine the odds of obesity for each group. Results: Youth meeting the PA recommendation were not at increased odds of obesity, regardless of SLP or TV status. However, not meeting any single recommendation, in general, led to increased odds of not meeting the other two. In boys, 11.8% met all recommendations while 14.1% met 0 recommendations. In girls, only 5.0% met all recommendations while 17.8% met none.
Boys and girls not meeting any of the recommendations were 4.0 and 3.8 times more likely to be obese compared with their respective referent groups. Further research considering the simultaneous influence these risk factors may have on obesity and on one another is warranted.
Harold King, Stephen Campbell, Makenzie Herzog, David Popoli, Andrew Reisner and John Polikandriotis
More than 1 million US high school students play football. Our objective was to compare the high school football injury profiles by school enrollment size during the 2013–2014 season.
Injury data were prospectively gathered on 1806 student athletes while participating in football practice or games by certified athletic trainers as standard of care for 20 high schools in the Atlanta Metropolitan area divided into small (<1600 students enrolled) or large (≥1600 students enrolled) over the 2013–2014 football season.
Smaller schools had a higher overall injury rate (79.9 injuries per 10,000 athletic exposures vs. 46.4 injuries per 10,000 athletic exposures; P < .001). In addition, smaller schools have a higher frequency of shoulder and elbow injuries (14.3% vs. 10.3%; P = .009 and 3.5% vs. 1.5%; P = .006, respectively) while larger schools have more hip/upper leg injuries (13.3% vs. 9.9%; P = .021). Lastly, smaller schools had a higher concussion distribution for offensive lineman (30.6% vs. 13.4%; P = .006) and a lower rate for defensive backs/safeties (9.2% vs. 25.4%; P = .008).
This study is the first to compare and show unique injury profiles for different high school sizes. An understanding of school specific injury patterns can help drive targeted preventative measures.
Gershon Tenenbaum, Saadia Pinchas, Gabi Elbaz, Michael Bar-Eli and Robert Weinberg
The purpose of the present investigation was to extend the literature on the relationship between goal specificity, goal proximity, and performance by using high school students and attempting to control for the effects of social comparison. Subjects (N=214) in Experiment 1 were randomly assigned to one of five goal-setting conditions: (a) short-term goals, (b) long-term goals, (c) short- plus long-term goals,(d) do-your-best goals, and (e) no goals. After a 3-week baseline period, subjects were tested once a week on the 3-minute sit-up over the course of the 10-week experimental period. Results indicated that the short- plus long-term group exhibited the greatest increase in performance although the short-term and long-term groups also displayed significant improvements. In Experiment 2, a short- plus long-term group was compared against a do-your-best group. Results again revealed a significant improvement in performance for the combination-goal group whereas the do-your-best group did not display any improvement.
Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, Christophe Gernigon, Marie-Laure Huet, Marielle Cadopi and Fayda Winnykamen
Based on Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development and its concept of zone of proximal development, this study examined how the skill level of a peer tutor affects the achievement motivation of novice learners and their performance in a swimming task. Gender differences were also explored. High school students (N = 48) were assigned in a 2 × 3 (Gender × Tutor skill level: novice vs. intermediate vs. skilled) factorial design. Participants were invited to observe a same-sex peer tutor, complete a self-efficacy questionnaire, train with their tutor for 8 minutes, and complete a goal involvement questionnaire. Results demonstrated that skilled tutors yielded the best swimming skills for boys, whereas skilled and intermediate tutors yielded better skills than did novice tutors for girls. The skilled tutor group led to higher self-efficacy for improvement and gave more demonstrations and verbal information than did the novice group. Male tutees adopted higher ego involvement goals and trained more physically, whereas female tutees adopted higher learning goals and received more demonstrations and verbal instructions. Results are discussed in relation to educational studies conducted in a Vygotskian perspective.
Ping Xiang, Bülent Ağbuğa, Jiling Liu and Ron E. McBride
Using self-determination theory, this study examined unique contributions of relatedness need satisfaction (to both teachers and peers) to intrinsic motivation and engagement (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) over and above those of autonomy need satisfaction and competence need satisfaction among Turkish students in secondary school physical education.
Participants were 331 (162 boys, 169 girls) middle and high school students enrolled in physical education classes at four public schools in the southwest Turkey. Data were collected by previously validated questionnaires.
No gender differences occurred in the mean levels of relatedness to teachers need satisfaction and relatedness to peers need satisfaction. These two types of relatedness need satisfaction made significant unique contributions to student engagement for both boys and girls. The differential roles of relatedness to peers need satisfaction in predicting boys’ and girls’ engagement were observed.
Discussion/Conclusion: The study demonstrated that two types of relatedness need satisfaction uniquely predicted students’ engagement in a secondary school physical education setting. This finding supports self-determination theory that relatedness need satisfaction is an important motivator for students in schools.
Pedro Silva, Ryan Lott, Jorge Mota and Greg Welk
Social support (SS) from parents and peers are key reinforcing factors in the Youth Physical Activity Promotion (YPAP) model. This study aims to identify the relative contribution of parental and peer SS on youth participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Participants included 203 high school students (n = 125 girls; mean age 14.99 ± 1.55 years). MVPA was assessed by accelerometry. SS influences were evaluated using a well-established scale. Structural equation modeling measured (AMOS, Version 19) the relative fit of the YPAP models using both parental and peer SS. Parental SS had significant associations with both predisposing factors, enjoyment (β = .62, p < .01), and self-efficacy (β= .32, p < .01), as well a direct effect on MVPA (β = .30, p < .01). Peer SS had direct effect on MVPA (β = .33, p < .05), also significantly influenced levels of enjoyment (β = .47, p < .01) and self-efficacy (β = .67, p < .01). In both models self-efficacy mediated the influence on MVPA. The direct effects for parents and peers were similar. This demonstrates that both parental and peer social support exert a strong influence on adolescent MVPA.
Gabriele Wulf, Sebastian Wächter and Stefan Wortmann
Recently, researchers in the motor learning area have shown that instructions to direct the learner’s attention to their body movements (i.e., induce an internal focus) – such as those typically used in applied settings – are less effective than instructions directing attention to the movement effects (i.e., inducing an external focus). Under the assumption that females tend to be more concerned about performing a movement correctly than males, who might be more inclined to focus on the outcome of their actions, the purpose of the present study was to examine whether females would benefit more from external-focus instructions than males. Female and male high-school students practiced a soccer instep kick with instructions that either induced an internal or external focus of attention. Subsequent retention (stationary ball) and transfer (moving ball) tests without instructions were performed to assess learning. The female group that was given internal-focus instructions during practice showed a greater performance decrement from retention to transfer than all other groups. This provides support for the view that the type of attentional focus induced by instructions might be particularly relevant for females, and that females might show greater learning advantages when provided with external-focus instructions.
Ruth P. Saunders, Rod K. Dishman, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate
Background: Interventions promoting physical activity (PA) in youth have had limited success, in part because studies with methodological challenges have yielded an incomplete understanding of personal, social, and environmental influences on PA. This study described changes in these factors for subgroups of youth with initially high PA that decreased (Active-Decline) compared with children with initially low PA that decreased (Inactive-Decline) from fifth to ninth grades. Methods: Observational, prospective cohort design. Participants (n = 625) were fifth-grade children recruited in 2 school districts and followed from elementary to high school. Students and their parents responded to questionnaires to assess personal, social, and perceived physical environmental factors in the fifth (mean age = 10.5 [.5] y) and ninth (mean age = 14.7 [.6] y) grades. Analyses included a mixed-model 2-way repeated analysis of variances. Results: Children in the Active-Decline compared with those in the Inactive-Decline group showed a more favorable profile in 6 of 8 personal variables (perceived barriers, self-efficacy, self-schema, enjoyment, competence, and fitness motives) and 4 of 6 social variables (friend support, parent encouragement, parent support, and parent-reported support). Conclusions: The results suggest efforts to promote PA should target selected personal, social, and perceived environmental factors beginning before age 10 and continuing through adolescence.