, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division . ( 2018 ). World Urbanization Prospects 2018 . Retrieved from https://population.un.org/wup/ U.S. Geological Survey . ( 2014 ). Earth Explorer, Landsat 4-5 TM C1 level 2 imagery . Retrieved from http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov Van Cauwenberg
Kirsi E. Keskinen, Merja Rantakokko, Kimmo Suomi, Taina Rantanen and Erja Portegijs
Pedro Lopez, Mikel Izquierdo, Regis Radaelli, Graciele Sbruzzi, Rafael Grazioli, Ronei Silveira Pinto and Eduardo Lusa Cadore
.C. , Manini , T.M. , Bolanowski , S.J. , & Ploutz-Snyder , L.L. ( 2006 ). Adaptations in human neuromuscular function following prolonged unweighting: II. Neurological properties and motor imagery efficacy . Journal of Applied Physiology, 101 , 264 – 272 . PubMed ID: 16514003 doi:10
Denver M.Y. Brown and Steven R. Bray
imagery leads to muscle fatigue and diminished performance of isometric exercise . Biological Psychology, 103 , 1 – 6 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.07.018 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.07.018 Hagger , M.S. , & Chatzisarantis , N.L. ( 2013 ). The sweet taste of success: The presence of glucose
Abby R. Fleming, Nic Martinez, Larry H. Collins, Candi D. Ashley, Maureen Chiodini, Brian J. Waddell and Marcus W. Kilpatrick
.psychsport.2016.07.005 10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.07.005 Stanley , D.M. , & Cumming , J. ( 2010 ). Are we having fun yet? Testing the effects of imagery use on the affective and enjoyment responses to acute moderate exercise . Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11 ( 6 ), 582 – 590 . doi:10.1016/j
Sommer Christie, Maurizio Bertollo and Penny Werthner
( 2 ), 371 – 375 . Jeon , Y. , Nam , C.S. , Kim , Y.-J. , & Whang , M.C. ( 2011 ). Event-related (De) synchronization (ERD/ERS) during motor imagery tasks: Implications for brain-computer interfaces . International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 41 ( 5 ), 428 – 436 . doi:10.1016/j
Jón Gregersen, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Evangelos Galanis, Nikos Comoutos and Athanasios Papaioannou
(imagery and relaxation) performing under distracting conditions of noise had better scores compared with a control group. Considering the distraction interpretation, such an effect may be partly attributed to the counter depleting effects of these strategies. Finally, the findings provide support for the
Denise M. Hill, Sheldon Hanton, Nic Matthews and Scott Fleming
This study explores the antecedents, mechanisms, influencing variables, and consequences of choking in sport and identifies interventions that may alleviate choking. Through the use of qualitative methods, the experiences of six elite golfers who choked frequently under pressure were examined and compared with five elite golfers who excelled frequently under pressure. The perspectives of four coaches who had worked extensively with elite golfers who had choked and excelled, were also considered. The study indicated that the participants choked as a result of distraction, which was caused by various stressors. Self-confidence, preparation, and perfectionism were identified as key influencing variables of the participants’ choking episodes, and the consequence of choking was a significant drop in performance that affected negatively future performances. Process goals, cognitive restructuring, imagery, simulated training, and a pre/postshot routine were perceived as interventions that may possibly prevent choking.
Zachary Zenko and Panteleimon Ekkekakis
and not exercise] AA-exercise were enhanced by an imagery manipulation. Antoniewicz and Brand ( 2016a ) [unclear] IAT (brief version), block structure with two critical blocks (40 trials per critical block), internal consistency not reported; construct: AA-exercise Stimuli types: pictures representing
Gert-Jan De Muynck, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Jochen Delrue, Nathalie Aelterman, Leen Haerens and Bart Soenens
students: A test of self-determination theory . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70 ( 4 ), 767 – 779 . PubMed doi: 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.527 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2067 Wright , B.J. , & O’Halloran , P.D. ( 2013 ). Perceived success, auditory feedback, and mental imagery: What best
Courtney Coughenour and Timothy J. Bungum
Neighborhood walkability is being promoted as an important factor in public health efforts to decrease rates of physical inactivity. Single entry communities (SEC), communities with only 1 entrance/exit, may result in an over estimation of walkability. This design makes direct walking routes outside the community nearly impossible and results in increased trip distance. The purpose of this study was to determine if accounting for SECs resulted in a significant difference in street connectivity.
Twenty geographically different Las Vegas neighborhoods were chosen and the number of true intersections measured in ArcGIS. Neighborhoods were then assessed for the presence of SECs using google maps, ArcGIS land imagery, and field observation. Intersections inside SECs were removed. A paired t test was used to assess the mean difference of intersection density before and after adjustment.
There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of true intersections after the adjustment (before mean = 57.8; after mean = 45.7). The eta squared statistic indicates a large effect size (0.3).
Single entry communities result in an over estimation of street connectivity. If SECs are not accounted for, trip distances will be underestimated and public health efforts to promote walking through walkable neighborhoods may prove less effective.