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Matheus Lima Oliveira, Isabela Christina Ferreira, Kariny Realino Ferreira, Gabriela Silveira-Nunes, Michelle Almeida Barbosa and Alexandre Carvalho Barbosa

Shoulder weakness and muscle imbalances are both associated with shoulder pain in athletes performing overhead sports. 1 Preseason shoulder external-rotation weakness is associated with supraspinatus strength deficits and in-season throwing-related injuries. 2 Differences in strength between the

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Adam Culiver, J. Craig Garrison, Kalyssa M. Creed, John E. Conway, Shiho Goto and Sherry Werner

mobility on the LE limb of their dominant side but also imbalances in hip abduction strength. Previous research has shown discrepancies in hip TRM between the dominant and nondominant limb in professional pitchers, but strength was not evaluated. 5 It has been shown that there is some utility

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Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann

individualized recovery is not achieved after training and functional overreaching, a continuous imbalance of inadequate recovery and excessive demands could initiate a cascade of deleterious conditions including underrecovery and nonfunctional overreaching (NFO). Underrecovery and NFO represent 2 closely

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Fahimeh Kamali, Ehsan Sinaei and Maryam Morovati

. According to the Janda’s theory, functional subacromial impingement is caused by changes in muscular activation patterns. This muscle imbalance, known as upper crossed syndrome, can lead to weakness in the middle and lower trapezius, serratus anterior, ISP, and deltoid, while causing tightness in the UT

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ZhiWei Liu, Ting Chen, Mingkang Shen, Kai Li, ChunJie Ma, Antonnette Ketlhoafetse and XiangYun Liu

from surgery, such as hyponatremia and other acid–base imbalances in the body ( Xue, Lin, Jiang, Wei, & Bi, 2018 ). Androgens are involved in the proliferation and differentiation of the prostate. Changes in testosterone (T) level are closely related to the growth of the prostate. Serum T level

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Whitney Williams and Noelle M. Selkow

, passive tension is caused by postural adaptation or scarring. 1 As a consequence, ROM abnormalities may create muscle imbalances. 4 This can lead to the disruption of force couples around joints. A force couple is defined as equal and parallel forces that act in opposing directions to create rotation, 5

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Kanako Shimoura, Yasuaki Nakayama, Yuto Tashiro, Takayuki Hotta, Yusuke Suzuki, Seishiro Tasaka, Tomofumi Matsushita, Keisuke Matsubara, Mirei Kawagoe, Takuya Sonoda, Yuki Yokota and Tomoki Aoyama

, upper-extremity and trunk injuries may also result, as the game includes frequent body contact and upper-extremity use. 1 For instance, low back pain is a frequent injury in basketball players, 7 which may result from reduced lumbar mobility 8 and neuromuscular imbalance. 9 Thus, the incidence of

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Leanne Norman

another example of research to add to the burgeoning body of literature documenting women’s underrepresentation just as coaches, or their often more negative experiences in the profession, or another paper that delves into possible reasons into why the sport coaching profession is so imbalanced when it

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Bastian Popp, Chris Horbel and Claas Christian Germelmann

the company is also positive, as is usually the case in sport sponsorships. Where there is imbalance, individuals change their attitudes and behavior to restore balance. In the context of anti-sponsor-brand communities, member avoidance of an association with the sponsor might result in avoidance of

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Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N. Shelling, Clare R. Wall, Edwin A. Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M.E. McCowan and John M.D. Thompson

maintenance of a healthy body weight (reverse causality). Obesity is considered to be the direct consequence of energy imbalance resulting from greater food intake and reduced energy expenditure ( 16 ). Decreased physical activity contributes to reduced total energy expenditure leading to detrimental health