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Chris Harwood and Austin Swain

The present study forms the first of two progressive investigations into the development and activation of achievement goals within young sports performers. The focal research question in this paper centers on identifying and understanding some of the underlying factors and processes responsible for the socialization of goal orientations and the activation of goal involvement states in a competition context. In-depth interviews were conducted on seventeen elite junior tennis players who represented a full cross-section of achievement goal profiles. Following inductive content analyses, four general dimensions emerged demonstrating how the development and activation of task and ego goals rested on a complex interaction of cognitive-developmental and social-environmental factors. Specific general dimensions included cognitive developmental skills and experiences, the motivational climate conveyed by significant others, the structural and social nature of the game, and the match context. The rich detail within these dimensions serves not only to extend our knowledge of achievement goals and achievement goal theory, but also to inform practitioners of key components to effective social-cognitive interventions.

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Christopher L. Stevenson

This investigation examined the ways in which, and the rationalizations with which, certain elite athletes juxtaposed the two role-identities of “Christian” and “athlete.” The data were obtained through in-depth interviews with current and former college and professional athletes associated with the Athletes-in-Action (AIA) organization in Western Canada (N=31: 23 males, 8 females). Initial analysis indicated considerable variability in the types of behavior that the athletes, as Christians, saw as acceptable in their sport environments, and yet the majority of these Christian-athletes did not appear to perceive any values-conflict between their Christian faith and their sporting practices. A more detailed examination using both a developmental and an interactionist perspective identified three more or less distinct types of accommodation to the normative expectations associated with the two role-identities (the segregated, selective, and committed types), each of which was associated with different consequences for the athletes’ own behaviors in sport, the values and attitudes they expressed, and the kinds of behaviors they perceived to be acceptable for Christian-athletes.

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Jennifer G. Walker, Kelly R. Evenson, William J. Davis, Philip Bors and Daniel A. Rodríguez


This comparative case study investigates 2 successful community trail initiatives, using the Active Living By Design (ALBD) Community Action Model as an analytical framework. The model includes 5 strategies: preparation, promotion, programs, policy, and physical projects.


Key stakeholders at 2 sites participated in in-depth interviews (N = 14). Data were analyzed for content using Atlas Ti and grouped according to the 5 strategies.


Preparation: Securing trail resources was challenging, but shared responsibilities facilitated trail development. Promotions: The initiatives demonstrated minimal physical activity encouragement strategies. Programs: Community stakeholders did not coordinate programmatic opportunities for routine physical activity. Policy: Trails’ inclusion in regional greenway master plans contributed to trail funding and development. Policies that were formally institutionalized and enforced led to more consistent trail construction and safer conditions for users. Physical Projects: Consistent standards for wayfinding signage and design safety features enhanced trail usability and safety.


Communities with different levels of government support contributed unique lessons to inform best practices of trail initiatives. This study revealed a disparity between trail development and use-encouragement strategies, which may limit trails’ impact on physical activity. The ALBD Community Action Model provided a viable framework to structure cross-disciplinary community trail initiatives.

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Marc Theeboom, Paul De Knop and Maureen R. Weiss

Recent research in educational psychology suggests that provision of a mastery motivational climate will maximize enjoyment, perceived competence, and intrinsic motivation in children (Ames, 1992a, 1992b, 1992c). Minimal research has been conducted to test this proposition in the physical domain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a performance versus mastery oriented teaching program on children’s enjoyment, perceived competence, intrinsic motivation, and motor skill development. Children (N = 119) 8 to 12 years of age were randomly assigned to one of the two programs for 3 weeks during an organized sports program. Results revealed that children in the mastery oriented group reported significantly higher levels of enjoyment and exhibited better motor skills than those in the performance oriented group. In-depth interviews further indicated that children in the mastery program were almost unanimous in reporting high levels of perceived competence and intrinsic motivation, while those from the traditional group showed less pronounced effects. These results provide empirical evidence that a mastery motivational climate can result in more positive experiences for young athletes as they learn new skills.

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Langston Clark, Anthony Heaven and Usman Shah


The primary purpose of this study was to garner the perspectives of teaching for social justice (TSJ) and teacher education for social justice from individuals who were previously or currently are affiliated with physical education teacher education (PETE) programs at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). A second purpose was to elucidate the meaning of TSJ as it pertains to PETE faculty who were once students of color at HBCUs. Participants: The participants were five Black Americans (three men and two women) alumni of HBCUs.


The research design was descriptive-qualitative using an interviewing approach for data collection, which also included artifact analysis. (Gay, 1996). Specifically, primary data were collected through semistructured in depth interviews. Data analysis occurred through the usage of immersion.


The emergent themes were: mainstreaming and maintaining, intergenerational justice, and different and divergent.


Results of this study indicate that: the nature of social justice is contextual; HBCUs prepare students to teach within both the mainstream and Black communities; and that values and practices related to social justice are passed from teacher educator to teacher education student.

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Lisa McDermott

This paper builds upon an earlier exploratory discussion about the term physicality that called for conceptual clarity regarding our theoretical understanding and use of it within the context of women’s lives. In light of fieldwork conducted, physicality is suggested to be the complex interplay of body perception, agency, and self-perception. This article focuses on examining one feature of this construct by assessing the relevance of body perception to two groups of women’s experiences of their physicalities through two differently gendered activities: aerobics and wilderness canoe-tripping. Pivotal to this has been qualitatively understanding the lived-body as experienced and understood by the women. In-depth interviews and participant observation were used to explore the meaning and significance these women derived from experiencing their bodies/themselves through these activities. Of specific interest was understanding the effects of these experiences in terms of shaping their understandings of their physicalities particularly beyond that of appearance. Central to this has been apprehending the physically and socially empowering effects of these experiences, especially at the level of their identity. Through the data analysis, body perception was found to be relevant to the women’s physical activity involvement in two distinct ways: as a factor initiating activity involvement and as a perception emerging through the experience. In turn, these differing perceptions of the body were found to impact diversely upon their physicalities, either broadening them or contributing to alternative ways of understanding them.

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Lauren Burch, Matthew Zimmerman and Beth Fielding Lloyd

without the filters of traditional media. In this case study, Borges conducted in-depth interviews with personnel at both Benfica TV and PSG TV about this use of media on multiple platforms in direct communication with the clubs’ respective fan bases. As a further examination of how soccer

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Kenneth Sean Chaplin and Jeffrey Montez de Oca

for the protests, half demonstrated profound outrage and personal offense at the athletes for not performing what they consider normative citizenship during the anthem ritual. During in-depth interviews, students responded to four simple questions that framed the protests in terms of deviance: are

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Amelia Mays Woods and Suzan F. Ayers

that encourage and discourage student retention in PETE are presented. Like the relationship between Chapters 5 and 6 regarding recruitment, the qualitative data presented from in-depth interviews in Chapter 8 build upon quantitative survey data reported in Chapter 7 and provide a rich description of

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Kenneth Sean Chaplin

explanation of his in-depth interviews with numerous black men demonstrates how and why so many black males cling to blacktop basketball as an identity and way of life ( Brook, 2009 ; May, 2008 ). The explanation of blacktops as one of few places and social spaces that black men engage with, commit to, and