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Geoffrey Whitfield, Kelley K. Pettee Gabriel and Harold W. Kohl III

Background:

Emerging evidence suggests that combined physical activity (PA) and inactivity may be more important for chronic disease risk than PA alone. A highly active yet highly sedentary population is needed to study this interaction. The present purpose is to describe the sitting habits of a group of recreational runners and determine if sitting varies with reported training duration or anticipated running velocity.

Methods:

Marathon and half-marathon participants completed the Multicontext Sitting Time Questionnaire and reported peak training duration, anticipated finishing time, and demographic information. Sitting time was described across 5 contexts for workdays and nonworkdays. Total sitting time was analyzed by tertiles of training duration and anticipated event running velocity.

Results:

218 participants took part in this study. Median reported training time was 6.5 hours per week. Median total sitting time was higher on workdays than nonworkdays (645 and 480 minutes, respectively, P < .0001). Total sitting time was not associated with training duration or anticipated event running velocity.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that recreational distance runners are simultaneously highly sedentary and highly active, supporting independence of sedentary behaviors and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA. This population may provide the characteristics needed to study the joint effects of active and sedentary behaviors on health outcomes.

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Tao Chen, Kenji Narazaki, Yuka Haeuchi, Sanmei Chen, Takanori Honda and Shuzo Kumagai

Background:

This cross-sectional study was performed to examine associations of objectively measured sedentary time (ST) and breaks in sedentary time (BST) with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability in Japanese community-dwelling older adults.

Methods:

The sample comprised 1634 older adults (mean age: 73.3 y, men: 38.4%). Sedentary behavior was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. Disability was defined as inability in at least 1 of the IADL tasks using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence.

Results:

After adjusting for potential confounders and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), longer ST was significantly associated with higher likelihood of IADL disability, whereas a greater number of BST was associated with lower likelihood of IADL disability. ST and BST remained statistically significant after mutual adjustment with odds ratio of 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI)], 1.00–1.70) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.65–0.99), respectively.

Conclusions:

This study first demonstrated that shorter ST and more BST were associated with lower risk of IADL disability independent of MVPA and that the association for ST was independent of BST and vice versa. These findings suggest not only total ST but also the manner in which it is accumulated may contribute to the maintenance of functional independence in older adults.

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Moongi Cho

This study examines the historical significance of Jang Gwon’s activities in the sport promotion carried out by Korea’s YMCA. At its birth, the Korean YMCA’s sport promotion was closely linked with the Korean nationalist movement under Japanese colonial rule, and this link was most evident around 1920, when Jang Gwon worked as a judo master. Citing the Sokol movement in Czechoslovakia, Jang Gwon took initiatives to enlighten Korean people’s consciousness and popularize sports, including judo and basketball, across the country through the Korean YMCA’s sport promotion. In particular, Jang Gwon introduced modern judo—formally known as Gangdogwan (Kodokan judo), initiated by Jigoro Kano—in Korea and took initiatives to establish the Korean Basketball Association and the Korean Basketball Referee Association. Through the Korean YMCA’s sport promotion, Jang Gwon motivated the Korean people to aspire to liberation and independence from Japanese colonial rule. Moreover, amid the prevailing social climate, in which physical activities were discouraged due to the influence of Neo-Confucianism, he provided a paradigm shift that called for “sport for all,” which enabled the modernization of sports and physical education in Korea.

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Judy Kruger, Sandra A. Ham and Serena Sanker

Background:

Physical inactivity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study provides prevalence estimates of inactivity by select characteristics among older adults.

Methods:

Respondents ≥50 years of age were selected from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (N = 185,702).

Results:

Overall, 30.0% of older adults did not engage in leisure-time physical activity. Within each racial/ethnic group, the prevalence of inactivity was highest among Hispanic men (41.9%) and women (42.4%). Among men with and without disabilities, chronic disease conditions associated with inactivity were angina or coronary artery disease. Among women with disabilities, chronic disease conditions associated with inactivity were stroke and diabetes; among women without disabilities only diabetes was significantly associated with inactivity.

Conclusion:

Regular physical activity is an important means to maintaining independence, because it substantially reduces the risk for developing many diseases; contributes to healthy bones, muscles, and joints; and can reduce the risk for falling. Health care providers are encouraged to discuss concerns regarding physical activity with their patients.

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Linda S. Koehler

It is proposed that the focus of sport management research be broadened to include those individuals who fill management positions in sport/fitness-related enterprises. A particularly useful approach is that of organizational behavior as it pertains to sport/fitness managers. Drawing from the content of organizational behavior for use in the study presented here, items of measure for job satisfaction include ability utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, authority, company policies/practices, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, moral values, recognition, responsibility, security, social service, social status, supervision-human relations, supervision-technical, variety, and working conditions. The corporate fitness managers participating in this study reported their level of general job satisfaction to be an average of 78.67 out of a possible 100 points. The factors shown to be significantly more satisfying than all other factors at the .05 level were social service and moral values. Additionally, although not significantly different from each other, both factors of advancement and compensation were revealed to be significantly more dissatisfying at the .05 level than all other factors.

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Wayne T. Phillips and William L. Haskell

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1990) has specified as a key objective the reduction of disability in the performance of activities of daily living (ADL) for persons over the age of 65 years. Many ADL involve combinations of muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility, three components that together have been referred to as "muscular fitness." The capacity of the elderly to remain functionally independent, therefore, may depend less on cardiovascular fitness, which has traditionally been the focus of health related fitness research, than on these components of muscular fitness. This review addresses the issue of muscular fitness and disability in the elderly by considering three questions: Is muscular fitness associated with ADL performance? Can muscular fitness be improved with exercise training? Do improvements in muscular fitness improve ADL performance? Answers to these questions will have important implications for future research and program implementation. Although initial findings are promising, more data are needed on the effect of muscular fitness on functional independence and quality of life in the elderly.

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Mark G. Davis, Kenneth R. Fox, Afroditi Stathi, Tanya Trayers, Janice L. Thompson and Ashley R. Cooper

The relationship of objectively measured sedentary time (ST), frequency of breaks in ST, and lower extremity function (LEF) was investigated in a diverse sample aged ≥ 70 years (n = 217). Physical activity (PA) was assessed by accelerometry deriving moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) minutes per registered hour (MVPA min · hr−1), registered ST (ST min · hr−1), and breaks in ST min · hr−1 (breaks · hr−1). LEF was assessed by the Short Physical Performance Battery. Univariate associations with overall LEF were MVPA (r = .523), ST (r = −.499), and breaks (r = .389). Adjusted linear regression including MVPA min · hr−1, ST min · hr−1, and breaks · hr−1 explained 41.5% of LEF variance. Each additional break · hr−1 was associated with 0.58 point increase in LEF. Breaks and MVPA had strongest independent associations with LEF. Promoting regular breaks might be useful in maintaining or increasing LEF and later life independence. This novel finding is important for the design of effective lifestyle interventions targeting older adults.

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Kristi Sweeney and Megan Schramm-Possinger

Understanding factors that influence live game-day attendance has garnered significant attention from both researchers and practitioners in the sport industry. Despite the National Football League’s unprecedented annual revenues, league attendance remains down, spurring large-scale investment into the game-day experience (Florio, 2008). In this case, students will perform various statistical analyses (i.e., computing chi-square tests of independence, t tests, effect sizes [Cohen’s d], and confidence intervals) to determine which factors most strongly influence fan attendance at Jacksonville Jaguars home games. Specifically, this case investigates the degree to which stadium upgrades motivate fans to attend and explores the extent to which fans support the use of public funds for stadium upgrades. Answering these questions will further equip future sport managers to make data-driven decisions regarding the utility of strategies—such as stadium projects—to enhance the game-day experience. Furthermore, students can use the knowledge gained from the case to critically analyze public investment in sport stadia as well as the ways in which consumers’ preferences are either independent of or depend on categorical variables such as gender. The case is intended for use in research methods courses and is also applicable to sport marketing, sport facility, and sport finance courses.

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Peter R.E. Crocker, Rikk B. Alderman, F. Murray and R. Smith

Cognitive-Affective Stress Management Training (SMT) is a coping skills training program designed to help athletes control dysfunctional stress processes (Smith, 1980). The present quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of SMT on affect, cognition, and performance in high performance youth volleyball players. Members of Alberta's Canada Games men's and women's (under 19 years of age) volleyball teams were assigned to either an experimental treatment group or a waiting-list control group. The treatment program consisted of eight modules, approximately 1 week apart, that allowed subjects to learn and apply somatic and cognitive coping skills. The results indicated that the treatment group emitted fewer negative thoughts in response to videotaped stressors and had superior service reception performance in a controlled practice compared to the control group. There were no interpretable differences between groups for either state anxiety (CSAI-2) or trait anxiety (SCAT). The cognitive and performance measures provided converging support for Smith's program. The results are discussed in terms of coping skills training, theoretical issues regarding the measurement of anxiety, and possible affect-cognition system independence.

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Arja Sääkslahti, Pirkko Numminen, Harri Niinikoski, Leena Rask-Nissilä, Jorma Viikari, Juhani Tuominen and Ilkaa Välimäki

The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of physical activity (PA) during a single weekend to ascertain possible relationships between PA and anthropometry, fundamental motor skills, and CHD risk factors among 105 normal male and female children, aged 3–4 years. The children played, when awake, on the average for 14 hr, 16 min indoors and for 5 hr, 12 min outdoors of which low activity playing accounted about 4 hr. Notable gender differences were observed in the intensity of PA but not in fundamental motor skills and CHD risk factors. The results suggest that physical activity is weakly related to fundamental motor skills and CHD risk factors at an early age. The association between PA and body size was modified by gender (p = .024): The girls who played indoors a lot were heavier than the others, and the boys who played much more outdoors were heavier in relation to other boys. The associations between PA and motor skills as well as PA and CHD risk factors were also highly gender-dependent: The boys benefited from interacting with parents, while the girls benefited from independence. The most influential factors seemed to be the amount of playing outdoors, the amount of high level play activities, as well as interaction with parents.