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Irfan A. Khan and Kelley D. Henderson

. Other common nonoperative treatments include physical therapy, corticosteroid and hyaluronic acid injections, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). 4 Focused Clinical Question What is the efficacy of valgus knee braces in treating pain in patients who have medial compartment osteoarthritis

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Dan M. Cooper

ability of exercise to stimulate systemic immune, stress, and both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. The seminal observations by Ostrowski et al ( 75 ) in adults have been corroborated in children and adolescents ( 72 , 73 ). In retrospect, of course, a stress, “danger” type

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Nenad Ponorac, Mira Popović, Dea Karaba-Jakovljević, Zorislava Bajić, Aaron Scanlan, Emilija Stojanović and Dragan Radovanović

accentuated, through different mechanisms, such as gastrointestinal bleeding; foot-strike hemolysis; hematuria; and increased loss of iron in sweat, urine, and feces ( Koehler et al., 2012 ). In addition, elevated postexercise hepcidin levels associated with inflammatory responses reduce intestinal absorption

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Kate N. Jochimsen, Margaret R. Pelton, Carl G. Mattacola, Laura J. Huston, Emily K. Reinke, Kurt P. Spindler, Christian Lattermann and Cale A. Jacobs

self-reported pain and function 6 months post-ACLR. Methods The current study is a secondary analysis of 48 participants (27 male/21 female; aged 22.7 [4.6] y, body mass index 24 [3.3]) who previously consented to participate in multicenter, prospective randomized clinical trial evaluating early anti-inflammatory

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Meghan K. Edwards and Paul D. Loprinzi

are plausible for a number of reasons. For instance, higher pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (eg, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) have been associated with lower levels of muscular strength 18 and 5-year declines in strength. 19 Additionally, there is some evidence for high

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Marion Kellermann, Christoph Lutter and Thilo Hotfiel

such as tumors or inflammatory processes. 4 – 10 Changes in dynamic blood perfusion can be visualized in a contrast agent preset through signals from the gas-filled microbubble contrast agent, which will be eliminated as gas (sulfur hexafluoride) via the lungs. Regarding skeletal muscle tissue, CEUS

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

strength and power ( Rawson & Persky, 2007 ; Volek & Rawson, 2004 ). Less common: Enhanced endurance performance resulting from increased/improved protein synthesis, glycogen storage, and thermoregulation ( Cooper et al., 2012 ; Kreider et al., 2017 ). Potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects

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Guy C. Wilson, Yorgi Mavros, Lotti Tajouri and Maria Fiatarone Singh

Sit to stand Pereira, Mateo, et al. ( 2013 ) IL-6 TNF-α IL-10 -174 (G/C) -308 (G/A) -1082 (G/C) rs1800795 rs1800629 rs1800896 Inflammatory modulator TUG Habitual gait speed Nicklas et al. ( 2005 ) (ADAPT study) IL-6 TNF-α TNF-α TNFR1 TNFR2 TNFR2 -174 (G/C) -238 (G/A) -308 (G/A) +36 (G/A) +676 (T

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Sabrina Skorski, Iñigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet, Romain Meeusen, Aaron J. Coutts and Tim Meyer

contraction, and inflammatory responses seem to influence RONS production during and after exercise. 18 Prior oxidative damage caused by intensive training periods might compromise recovery as well as exercise performance. 18 However, Ascensão et al 18 could not find a relationship between oxidative stress

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William Abbott, Adam Brett, Emma Cockburn and Tom Clifford

force observed in the days following a match, and perhaps also reduce MS, by modulating the inflammatory response and accelerating ultrastructural repair. 8 In support of such effects, a recent meta-analysis indicated that whey protein feeding postexercise has small to positive benefits for muscle