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Herman van Werkhoven and Stephen J. Piazza

interest during locomotion as the long lever of the foot permits the GRF to act at a substantial distance from the joint during locomotion. For this reason, internal ankle joint torques tend to be large and typically vary considerably as the magnitude, direction, and point of application of the GRF vector

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Fawaz A. Alwadani, Huaqing Liang and Alexander S. Aruin

& Vieira, 2017 ; Lin & Nussbaum, 2012 ). Moreover, it was reported that the plantarflexion stance is associated with an increase in the soleus muscle activation, and it was reasoned that the calf muscle activity might result in a noise-like fluctuation in the ankle joint torque to sufficiently control the

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Daniel C. McFarland, Alexander G. Brynildsen and Katherine R. Saul

experimental kinematics. Reserve actuators were included to provide additional joint torque where required to track kinematics. 29 Mean root mean squared reserve torque was <1.0 N·m for all coordinates for all trials; simulations requiring reserve torque >5 N·m are reported (Table  1 ). Of the 120 simulations

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Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin and Antonio Dello Iacono

. 1989 ; 409 : 451 – 471 . PubMed ID: 2585297 doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1989.sp017507 10.1113/jphysiol.1989.sp017507 2585297 46. Coratella G , Bellin G , Beato M , Schena F . Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps . J Sports Sci . 2015 ; 33 ( 12 ): 1276

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Micheal J. Luera, Brittany Dowling, Tyler W.D. Muddle and Nathaniel D.M. Jenkins

skills: descriptions and explanations . J Biomech . 1993 ; 26 ( suppl 1 ): 125 – 135 . doi:10.1016/0021-9290(93)90084-R 8505347 10.1016/0021-9290(93)90084-R 5. Aguinaldo AL , Buttermore J , Chambers H . Effects of upper trunk rotation on shoulder joint torque among baseball pitchers of various

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Jaqueline M. Porto, Sállua B. Spilla, Luciana M. Cangussu-Oliveira, Renato C. Freire Júnior, Ana Paula M. Nakaishi and Daniela C.C. de Abreu

doi: 10.1007/s00421-006-0245-2 Crozara , L.F. , Morcelli , M.H. , Marques , N.R. , Hallal , C.Z. , Spinoso , D.H. , Almeida Neto , A.F. , . . . Gonçalves , M. ( 2013 ). Motor readiness and joint torque production in lower limbs of older women fallers and non-fallers . Journal of

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Nobuaki Tottori, Tadashi Suga, Yuto Miyake, Ryo Tsuchikane, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano, Satoshi Fujita and Tadao Isaka

.1080/026404198366786 10.1080/026404198366786 9596360 11. Fukunaga T , Miyatani M , Tachi M , Kouzaki M , Kawakami Y , Kanehisa H . Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 : 249 – 55 . PubMed doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 11531646 10

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Kevin McCurdy and John Walker

-induced muscular hypertrophy . J Orthop Sports Phys Ther . 2000 ; 30 : 143 – 148 . PubMed ID: 10721510 doi:10.2519/jospt.2000.30.3.143 10721510 10.2519/jospt.2000.30.3.143 32. Sun Y , Wei S , Zhong Y , Fu W , Li L , Liu Y . How joint torques affect hamstring injury risk in sprinting swing

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Rebecca L. Krupenevich, William H. Clark, Gregory S. Sawicki and Jason R. Franz

Rev . 2016 ; 44 ( 4 ): 129 – 136 . doi:10.1249/JES.0000000000000086 27433977 10.1249/JES.0000000000000086 2. DeVita P , Hortobagyi T . Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and power during gait . J Appl Physiol . 2000 ; 88 : 1804 – 1811 . PubMed ID: 10797145 doi:10.1152/jappl.2000

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Katie A. Conway and Jason R. Franz

, 116 ( 3 ), 525 – 538 . PubMed ID: 9372302 doi:10.1007/PL00005781 10.1007/PL00005781 DeVita , P. , & Hortobagyi , T. ( 2000 ). Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait . Journal of Applied Physiology, 88 ( 5 ), 1804 – 1811 . doi:10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 10