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Andrzej Kochanowicz, Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Jan Mieszkowski, Stanisław Sawczyn, Paweł Cięszczyk and Kazimierz Kochanowicz

influence the development of rapid muscle strength is the co-contraction of antagonistic muscles. In adults, it has been shown that strength training reduces antagonist coactivation and thus results in greater net joint torque ( 2 , 40 , 43 ). Studies by Grosset et al ( 21 ) and Lambertz et al ( 34

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Kevin McCurdy and John Walker

-induced muscular hypertrophy . J Orthop Sports Phys Ther . 2000 ; 30 : 143 – 148 . PubMed ID: 10721510 doi:10.2519/jospt.2000.30.3.143 10721510 10.2519/jospt.2000.30.3.143 32. Sun Y , Wei S , Zhong Y , Fu W , Li L , Liu Y . How joint torques affect hamstring injury risk in sprinting swing

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Jaqueline M. Porto, Sállua B. Spilla, Luciana M. Cangussu-Oliveira, Renato C. Freire Júnior, Ana Paula M. Nakaishi and Daniela C.C. de Abreu

doi: 10.1007/s00421-006-0245-2 Crozara , L.F. , Morcelli , M.H. , Marques , N.R. , Hallal , C.Z. , Spinoso , D.H. , Almeida Neto , A.F. , . . . Gonçalves , M. ( 2013 ). Motor readiness and joint torque production in lower limbs of older women fallers and non-fallers . Journal of

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Shani Batcir and Itshak Melzer

), who showed that bicyclists had greater muscle strength compared with age-matched controls. In a pilot study, Rissel et al. ( 2013 ) found a significant improvement in balance and leg strength among older adults after outdoor bicycling intervention. Also, Verney et al. ( 2006 ) concluded that the joint

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Micheal J. Luera, Brittany Dowling, Tyler W.D. Muddle and Nathaniel D.M. Jenkins

skills: descriptions and explanations . J Biomech . 1993 ; 26 ( suppl 1 ): 125 – 135 . doi:10.1016/0021-9290(93)90084-R 8505347 10.1016/0021-9290(93)90084-R 5. Aguinaldo AL , Buttermore J , Chambers H . Effects of upper trunk rotation on shoulder joint torque among baseball pitchers of various

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Nobuaki Tottori, Tadashi Suga, Yuto Miyake, Ryo Tsuchikane, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano, Satoshi Fujita and Tadao Isaka

.1080/026404198366786 10.1080/026404198366786 9596360 11. Fukunaga T , Miyatani M , Tachi M , Kouzaki M , Kawakami Y , Kanehisa H . Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 : 249 – 55 . PubMed doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 11531646 10

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Herman van Werkhoven and Stephen J. Piazza

interest during locomotion as the long lever of the foot permits the GRF to act at a substantial distance from the joint during locomotion. For this reason, internal ankle joint torques tend to be large and typically vary considerably as the magnitude, direction, and point of application of the GRF vector

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Wai-Ting Lo, Kit-Lun Yick, Newman Lau, Lok-Tung Tse, Sun-Pui Ng and Joanne Yip

: a comparison between individuals with acromegaly and healthy subjects . Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 25 ( 2 ), 218 – 227 . PubMed doi:10.1123/japa.2016-0100 10.1123/japa.2016-0100 Devita , P. , & Hortobagyi , T. ( 2000 ). Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers

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Jared R. Fletcher and Brian R. MacIntosh

Y , Kanehisa H . Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 ( 4 ): 249 – 255 . PubMed ID: 11531646 doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 11531646 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 4. Pandy MG . Moment arm of a muscle force . Exerc Sport

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo

pointed out above, the lower postural stability of overweight/obese children (8–12 years old) and adolescents could be due to deficient muscle force production. Following the inverted pendulum model for upright stance, the higher the body mass the larger and faster the joint torques to maintain stability