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Timothy A. Hanke, Bruce Kay, Michael Turvey and David Tiberio

-related changes in hip abductor and adductor joint torques . Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85 , 593 – 597 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2003.07.022 10.1016/j.apmr.2003.07.022 Kay , B.A. , Kelso , J.A.S. , Saltzman , E.L. , & Schoner , G. ( 1987 ). Space-time behavior of single and

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Renato Claudino, Marcio José dos Santos and Giovana Zarpellon Mazo

, which was more accentuated in the older fallers group. The authors suggested that although the older adults in this study generated higher muscle activity, they did not necessarily developed higher joint torques to properly withstand perturbation forces ( Billot, Simoneau, Van Hoecke, & Martin, 2010

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Ben Serrien, Maggy Goossens and Jean-Pierre Baeyens

increasing performance. Conversely, participants further away from their PHV 1 showed stronger decreases in CV. Growth and weight gain affect the moments of inertia and it has been shown that muscle strength does not increase proportionally to produce higher joint torques ( Jensen, 1981 , 1989 ). Athletes

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Daniela Corbetta, Rebecca F. Wiener, Sabrina L. Thurman and Emalie McMahon

development of goal-directed reaching in infants: Hand trajectory formation and joint torque control . Experimental Brain Research, 106 , 156 – 168 . PubMed doi:10.1007/BF00241365 10.1007/BF00241365 Lasky , R.E. ( 1977 ). The effect of visual feedback of the hand on the reaching and retrieval behavior

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Andrea Biscarini, Samuele Contemori and Giuditta Grolla

online ahead of print January 24, 2018]. J Sport Rehabil . doi:10.1123/jsr.2017-0232 29364045 31. Biscarini A , Busti D , Calandra A , Contemori S . The “supine bridge” therapeutic exercise: determination of joint torques by means of biomechanical modeling and technologies . J Mech Med Biol

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Katie A. Conway, Randall G. Bissette and Jason R. Franz

joint torques and powers during gait . J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, Md: 1985) . 2000 ; 88 ( 5 ): 1804 – 1811 . PubMed ID: 10797145 doi:10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 20. Judge JO , Davis RB 3rd , Ounpuu S . Step length reductions in advanced age: the role of ankle

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Jocelyn F. Hafer, Mark S. Miller, Jane A. Kent and Katherine A. Boyer

funding for this study was provided by an American College of Sports Medicine Foundation Doctoral Research Grant (JFH) . The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. DeVita P , Hortobagyi T . Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait . J Appl Physiol . 2000

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Konstantina Katsoulis, Liza Stathokostas and Catherine E. Amara

a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait . Journal of Applied Physiology, 88 ( 5 ), 1804 – 1811 . PubMed ID: 10797145 doi:10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 de Vos , N.J. , Singh , N.A. , Ross , D.A. , Stavrinos , T.M. , Orr , R. , & Fiatarone

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Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri and Morteza Taghipour

study suggested that low seat height can increase L5–S1 joint ROM during STS. 49 Besides, it has been reported that low seat height can result in an increase in the amount of paraspinal muscles activation and in the L5–S1 peak net joint torque compared with high and neutral seat heights. 49 Hence

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Cameron T. Gibbons, Polemnia G. Amazeen and Aaron D. Likens

. This implies that (a) participants relied equally well on visual and haptic (through the feet) feedback to position themselves in what felt like a “stable” position or (b) the optimal position was one in which joint torque was minimized; this was determined by biomechanical constraints, like size