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Shani Batcir and Itshak Melzer

), who showed that bicyclists had greater muscle strength compared with age-matched controls. In a pilot study, Rissel et al. ( 2013 ) found a significant improvement in balance and leg strength among older adults after outdoor bicycling intervention. Also, Verney et al. ( 2006 ) concluded that the joint

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Andrzej Kochanowicz, Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Jan Mieszkowski, Stanisław Sawczyn, Paweł Cięszczyk and Kazimierz Kochanowicz

influence the development of rapid muscle strength is the co-contraction of antagonistic muscles. In adults, it has been shown that strength training reduces antagonist coactivation and thus results in greater net joint torque ( 2 , 40 , 43 ). Studies by Grosset et al ( 21 ) and Lambertz et al ( 34

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Fawaz A. Alwadani, Huaqing Liang and Alexander S. Aruin

& Vieira, 2017 ; Lin & Nussbaum, 2012 ). Moreover, it was reported that the plantarflexion stance is associated with an increase in the soleus muscle activation, and it was reasoned that the calf muscle activity might result in a noise-like fluctuation in the ankle joint torque to sufficiently control the

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Daniel C. McFarland, Alexander G. Brynildsen and Katherine R. Saul

experimental kinematics. Reserve actuators were included to provide additional joint torque where required to track kinematics. 29 Mean root mean squared reserve torque was <1.0 N·m for all coordinates for all trials; simulations requiring reserve torque >5 N·m are reported (Table  1 ). Of the 120 simulations

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Micheal J. Luera, Brittany Dowling, Tyler W.D. Muddle and Nathaniel D.M. Jenkins

skills: descriptions and explanations . J Biomech . 1993 ; 26 ( suppl 1 ): 125 – 135 . doi:10.1016/0021-9290(93)90084-R 8505347 10.1016/0021-9290(93)90084-R 5. Aguinaldo AL , Buttermore J , Chambers H . Effects of upper trunk rotation on shoulder joint torque among baseball pitchers of various

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Nobuaki Tottori, Tadashi Suga, Yuto Miyake, Ryo Tsuchikane, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano, Satoshi Fujita and Tadao Isaka

.1080/026404198366786 10.1080/026404198366786 9596360 11. Fukunaga T , Miyatani M , Tachi M , Kouzaki M , Kawakami Y , Kanehisa H . Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 : 249 – 55 . PubMed doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 11531646 10

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Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin and Antonio Dello Iacono

. 1989 ; 409 : 451 – 471 . PubMed ID: 2585297 doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1989.sp017507 10.1113/jphysiol.1989.sp017507 2585297 46. Coratella G , Bellin G , Beato M , Schena F . Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps . J Sports Sci . 2015 ; 33 ( 12 ): 1276

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Wai-Ting Lo, Kit-Lun Yick, Newman Lau, Lok-Tung Tse, Sun-Pui Ng and Joanne Yip

: a comparison between individuals with acromegaly and healthy subjects . Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 25 ( 2 ), 218 – 227 . PubMed doi:10.1123/japa.2016-0100 10.1123/japa.2016-0100 Devita , P. , & Hortobagyi , T. ( 2000 ). Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo

pointed out above, the lower postural stability of overweight/obese children (8–12 years old) and adolescents could be due to deficient muscle force production. Following the inverted pendulum model for upright stance, the higher the body mass the larger and faster the joint torques to maintain stability

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Rebecca L. Krupenevich, William H. Clark, Gregory S. Sawicki and Jason R. Franz

Rev . 2016 ; 44 ( 4 ): 129 – 136 . doi:10.1249/JES.0000000000000086 27433977 10.1249/JES.0000000000000086 2. DeVita P , Hortobagyi T . Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and power during gait . J Appl Physiol . 2000 ; 88 : 1804 – 1811 . PubMed ID: 10797145 doi:10.1152/jappl.2000