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Andrzej Kochanowicz, Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Jan Mieszkowski, Stanisław Sawczyn, Paweł Cięszczyk and Kazimierz Kochanowicz

influence the development of rapid muscle strength is the co-contraction of antagonistic muscles. In adults, it has been shown that strength training reduces antagonist coactivation and thus results in greater net joint torque ( 2 , 40 , 43 ). Studies by Grosset et al ( 21 ) and Lambertz et al ( 34

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Nobuaki Tottori, Tadashi Suga, Yuto Miyake, Ryo Tsuchikane, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano, Satoshi Fujita and Tadao Isaka

.1080/026404198366786 10.1080/026404198366786 9596360 11. Fukunaga T , Miyatani M , Tachi M , Kouzaki M , Kawakami Y , Kanehisa H . Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 : 249 – 55 . PubMed doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 11531646 10

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Steven Eustace, Richard Michael Page and Matt Greig

.4085/1062-6050-48.3.23 10.4085/1062-6050-48.3.23 24067150 6. Czaplicki A , Jarocka M , Walawski J . Isokinetic identification of knee joint torques before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction . PLoS One . 2015 ; 10 ( 12 ): 0144283 . PubMed ID: 26646385 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144283 10

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Shani Batcir and Itshak Melzer

), who showed that bicyclists had greater muscle strength compared with age-matched controls. In a pilot study, Rissel et al. ( 2013 ) found a significant improvement in balance and leg strength among older adults after outdoor bicycling intervention. Also, Verney et al. ( 2006 ) concluded that the joint

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Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin and Antonio Dello Iacono

. 1989 ; 409 : 451 – 471 . PubMed ID: 2585297 doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1989.sp017507 10.1113/jphysiol.1989.sp017507 2585297 46. Coratella G , Bellin G , Beato M , Schena F . Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps . J Sports Sci . 2015 ; 33 ( 12 ): 1276

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Daniel C. McFarland, Alexander G. Brynildsen and Katherine R. Saul

experimental kinematics. Reserve actuators were included to provide additional joint torque where required to track kinematics. 29 Mean root mean squared reserve torque was <1.0 N·m for all coordinates for all trials; simulations requiring reserve torque >5 N·m are reported (Table  1 ). Of the 120 simulations

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Hatice Mujde Ayık and Michael J. Griffin

strategies defined by joint torques . Gait Posture . 1999 ; 10 : 161 – 170 . PubMed ID: 10502650 doi:10.1016/S0966-6362(99)00032-6 10.1016/S0966-6362(99)00032-6 10502650 15. Sari HM , Griffin MJ . Postural stability when walking: effect of the frequency and magnitude of lateral oscillatory motion

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Kevin McCurdy and John Walker

-induced muscular hypertrophy . J Orthop Sports Phys Ther . 2000 ; 30 : 143 – 148 . PubMed ID: 10721510 doi:10.2519/jospt.2000.30.3.143 10721510 10.2519/jospt.2000.30.3.143 32. Sun Y , Wei S , Zhong Y , Fu W , Li L , Liu Y . How joint torques affect hamstring injury risk in sprinting swing

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Katie A. Conway and Jason R. Franz

, 116 ( 3 ), 525 – 538 . PubMed ID: 9372302 doi:10.1007/PL00005781 10.1007/PL00005781 DeVita , P. , & Hortobagyi , T. ( 2000 ). Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait . Journal of Applied Physiology, 88 ( 5 ), 1804 – 1811 . doi:10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 10

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Micheal J. Luera, Brittany Dowling, Tyler W.D. Muddle and Nathaniel D.M. Jenkins

skills: descriptions and explanations . J Biomech . 1993 ; 26 ( suppl 1 ): 125 – 135 . doi:10.1016/0021-9290(93)90084-R 8505347 10.1016/0021-9290(93)90084-R 5. Aguinaldo AL , Buttermore J , Chambers H . Effects of upper trunk rotation on shoulder joint torque among baseball pitchers of various