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Herman van Werkhoven and Stephen J. Piazza

interest during locomotion as the long lever of the foot permits the GRF to act at a substantial distance from the joint during locomotion. For this reason, internal ankle joint torques tend to be large and typically vary considerably as the magnitude, direction, and point of application of the GRF vector

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James Hackney, Jade McFarland, David Smith and Clinton Wallis

part of natural movement in nonhuman vertebrates ( Shen & Seipel, 2015 ) and insects ( Dudek & Full, 2006 ), and in humans ( Minetti, 1998 ; Prilutsky & Zatsiorsky, 2002 ). Second, research implies that the multiple sources of joint torque through the lower body converge to predictable force at the

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Katie A. Conway and Jason R. Franz

, 116 ( 3 ), 525 – 538 . PubMed ID: 9372302 doi:10.1007/PL00005781 10.1007/PL00005781 DeVita , P. , & Hortobagyi , T. ( 2000 ). Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait . Journal of Applied Physiology, 88 ( 5 ), 1804 – 1811 . doi:10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 10

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Nobuaki Tottori, Tadashi Suga, Yuto Miyake, Ryo Tsuchikane, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano, Satoshi Fujita and Tadao Isaka

.1080/026404198366786 10.1080/026404198366786 9596360 11. Fukunaga T , Miyatani M , Tachi M , Kouzaki M , Kawakami Y , Kanehisa H . Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 : 249 – 55 . PubMed doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 11531646 10

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Jared R. Fletcher and Brian R. MacIntosh

Y , Kanehisa H . Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 ( 4 ): 249 – 255 . PubMed ID: 11531646 doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 11531646 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 4. Pandy MG . Moment arm of a muscle force . Exerc Sport

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Hatice Mujde Ayık and Michael J. Griffin

strategies defined by joint torques . Gait Posture . 1999 ; 10 : 161 – 170 . PubMed ID: 10502650 doi:10.1016/S0966-6362(99)00032-6 10.1016/S0966-6362(99)00032-6 10502650 15. Sari HM , Griffin MJ . Postural stability when walking: effect of the frequency and magnitude of lateral oscillatory motion

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Fawaz A. Alwadani, Huaqing Liang and Alexander S. Aruin

& Vieira, 2017 ; Lin & Nussbaum, 2012 ). Moreover, it was reported that the plantarflexion stance is associated with an increase in the soleus muscle activation, and it was reasoned that the calf muscle activity might result in a noise-like fluctuation in the ankle joint torque to sufficiently control the

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Jaqueline M. Porto, Sállua B. Spilla, Luciana M. Cangussu-Oliveira, Renato C. Freire Júnior, Ana Paula M. Nakaishi and Daniela C.C. de Abreu

doi: 10.1007/s00421-006-0245-2 Crozara , L.F. , Morcelli , M.H. , Marques , N.R. , Hallal , C.Z. , Spinoso , D.H. , Almeida Neto , A.F. , . . . Gonçalves , M. ( 2013 ). Motor readiness and joint torque production in lower limbs of older women fallers and non-fallers . Journal of

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Shani Batcir and Itshak Melzer

), who showed that bicyclists had greater muscle strength compared with age-matched controls. In a pilot study, Rissel et al. ( 2013 ) found a significant improvement in balance and leg strength among older adults after outdoor bicycling intervention. Also, Verney et al. ( 2006 ) concluded that the joint

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Wai-Ting Lo, Kit-Lun Yick, Newman Lau, Lok-Tung Tse, Sun-Pui Ng and Joanne Yip

: a comparison between individuals with acromegaly and healthy subjects . Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 25 ( 2 ), 218 – 227 . PubMed doi:10.1123/japa.2016-0100 10.1123/japa.2016-0100 Devita , P. , & Hortobagyi , T. ( 2000 ). Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers