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Michelle A. Sandrey, Cody Lancellotti and Cory Hester

multitude of problems through the kinetic chain from the plantar surface of the foot up to the knee. 8 By using forms of myofascial release (MFR) such as foam rolling (FR), and instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) to release soft tissue restrictions and increase ROM, this will ideally allow

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Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte and Howard Tennen

assess pain, negative mood, knee symptoms and functioning, and adversarial growth. An open response format was used to assess the main rehabilitation goal of participants. Ratings of the average amount of pain that participants experienced on a given day were given on a numerical rating scale (NRS) that

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Maria K. Talarico, Robert C. Lynall, Timothy C. Mauntel, Erin B. Wasserman, Darin A. Padua and Jason P. Mihalik

the task to identify possible indicators for dysfunction or injury. 2 Observational deficits in dynamic postural control 7 , 8 and unfavorable lower extremity kinematics, such as greater medial knee displacement 3 , 9 – 11 and decreased ankle dorsiflexion, 12 of pathological populations while

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Roger J. Paxton, Jeri E. Forster, Matthew J. Miller, Kristine L. Gerron, Jennifer E. Stevens-Lapsley and Cory L. Christiansen

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of chronic disability in the United States ( Dillon, Rasch, Gu, & Hirsch, 2006 ). To alleviate OA-related knee pain, more than 700,000 total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) are performed annually ( Kurtz, Ong, Lau, Mowat, & Halpern, 2007 ), with more

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Kerry E. Costello, Janie L. Astephen Wilson, William D. Stanish, Nathan Urquhart and Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is estimated to affect approximately 250 million people worldwide, 1 and OA rates continue to rise, 2 , 3 presenting a significant health care burden. The typical model of care consists of pharmacological symptom management until end-stage disease, when total knee

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Nobuaki Tottori, Tadashi Suga, Yuto Miyake, Ryo Tsuchikane, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano, Satoshi Fujita and Tadao Isaka

Superior sprint performance is achieved through the generation of large moments by the muscles crossing the hip, knee, and ankle joints ( 29 ). The magnitudes of these moments are primarily determined by agonist muscle size ( 2 , 11 , 12 , 20 , 32 ). In fact, trunk and lower limb muscles are larger

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Tina L. Claiborne, Charles W. Armstrong, Varsha Gandhi and Danny M. Pincivero

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hip and knee strength, and valgus knee motion during a single leg squat. Thirty healthy adults (15 men, 15 women) stood on their preferred foot, squatted to approximately 60 deg of knee flexion, and returned to the standing position. Frontal plane knee motion was evaluated using 3-D motion analysis. During Session 2, isokinetic (60 deg/sec) concentric and eccentric hip (abduction/adduction, flexion/extension, and internal/external rotation) and knee (flexion/extension) strength was evaluated. The results demonstrated that hip abduction (r 2 = 0.13), knee flexion (r 2 = 0.18), and knee extension (r 2 = 0.14) peak torque were significant predictors of frontal plane knee motion. Significant negative correlations showed that individuals with greater hip abduction (r = –0.37), knee flexion (r = –0.43), and knee extension (r = –0.37) peak torque exhibited less motion toward the valgus direction. Men exhibited significantly greater absolute peak torque for all motions, excluding eccentric internal rotation. When normalized to body mass, men demonstrated significantly greater strength than women for concentric hip adduction and flexion, knee flexion and extension, and eccentric hip extension. The major findings demonstrate a significant role of hip muscle strength in the control of frontal plane knee motion.

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Elizabeth A. Schlenk, G. Kelley Fitzgerald, Joan C. Rogers, C. Kent Kwoh and Susan M. Sereika

Over nine million Americans have knee osteoarthritis (KOA), a chronic disorder associated with frequent knee pain and functional limitations that intrude upon everyday life. About half of those with KOA have hypertension (HBP), one of the most prevalent risk factors for cardiovascular disease

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Marc R. Safran, Christopher D. Harner, Jorge L. Giraldo, Scott M. Lephart, Paul A. Borsa and Freddie H. Fu

Proprioceptive deficits have been demonstrated following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disruption, but little research exists evaluating proprioception in the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-deficient and/or -reconstructed knee. We have studied proprioception in PCL-deficient and PCL-reconstructed knees. The following summarizes our protocol and results of proprioceptive testing of kinesthesia and joint position sense in participants with isolated PCL injuries and those who underwent PCL reconstruction. We studied 18 participants with isolated raptures of the PCL and 10 participants who underwent PCL reconstruction. Proprioception was evaluated by two tests: the threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM) and the ability to passively reproduce passive positioning (RPP). These assess kinesthesia and joint position sense, respectively. We have shown that isolated PCL deficiency in the human knee does result in reduced kinesthesia and enhanced joint position sense. Thus, the proprioceptive mechanoreceptors in the PCL do appear to have some function. We further found that PCL reconstruction significantly improved kinesthesia at 45° of knee flexion, while 110° was not significantly different between the involved and uninvolved knee in both studies.

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Rodrigo R. Bini, Tiago C. Jacques and Marco A. Vaz

Context:

Unassisted single-leg cycling should be replaced by assisted single-leg cycling, given that this last approach has potential to mimic joint kinetics and kinematics from double-leg cycling. However, there is need to test if assisting devices during pedaling effectively replicate joint forces and torque from double-leg cycling.

Objectives:

To compare double-leg, single-leg assisted, and unassisted cycling in terms of lower-limb kinetics and kinematics.

Design:

Cross-sectional crossover.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

14 healthy nonathletes.

Interventions:

Two double-leg cycling trials (240 ± 23 W) and 2 single-leg trials (120 ± 11 W) at 90 rpm were performed for 2 min using a bicycle attached to a cycle trainer. Measurements of pedal force and joint kinematics of participants’ right lower limb were performed during double- and single-leg trials. For the single-leg assisted trial, a custom-made adaptor was used to attach 10 kg of weight to the contralateral crank.

Main Outcome Measures:

Peak hip, knee, and ankle torques (flexors and extensors) along with knee-flexion angle and peak patellofemoral compressive force.

Results:

Reduced peak hip-extensor torque (10%) and increased peak knee-flexor torque (157%) were observed at the single-leg assisted cycling compared with the double-leg cycling. No differences were found for peak patellofemoral compressive force or knee-flexion angle comparing double-leg with single-leg assisted cycling. However, single-leg unassisted cycling resulted in larger peak patellofemoral compressive force (28%) and lower knee-flexion angle (3%) than double-leg cycling.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that although single-leg assisted cycling differs for joint torques, it replicates knee loads from double-leg cycling.