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Daniel Arvidsson, Elias Johannesson, Lars Bo Andersen, Magnus Karlsson, Per Wollmer, Ola Thorsson and Magnus Dencker

present study, the children with more body fat were neither taller nor had more lean body mass than children with less body fat (data not shown). Therefore, body size may not explain differences in serum BDNF and NGF herein. Instead, the relationships observed (the mediator analysis) may reflect the

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

assist in training harder, gaining lean body mass, or maintaining lean mass during periods of immobilization after injury ( Branch, 2003 ; Gualano et al., 2012 ; Heaton et al., 2017 ). Decisions on supplement use therefore need to consider both the context of use and the specific protocol employed

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Jennifer Dekker, Katlynne Nelson, Nigel Kurgan, Bareket Falk, Andrea Josse and Panagiota Klentrou

proper form and technique were used throughout the set. Measurements Height and seated height were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm using a stadiometer (Ellard Instruments, Monroe WA, USA), with no shoes and light clothes. Body mass (kg) as well as body composition including lean body mass, fat mass, and

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Alexander J. Bedard, Kevin A. Bigelman, Lynn R. Fielitz, Jeffrey D. Coelho, William B. Kobbe, Renard O. Barone, Nicholas H. Gist and John E. Palmer

, researchers have looked at other activities such as soccer, basketball, and ice hockey, concluding that female athletes may be at a greater risk for concussion than males ( Dick, 2009 ). This might be a result of differences in lean body mass, head mass, strength of the neck muscles, or physiological

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Robert S. Thiebaud, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P. Loenneke, Tyler Garcia, Yohan Shirazi and Ross McArthur

. 2012 ; 7 ( 12 ): e52843 . doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052843 23300795 10. Thiebaud RS , Loenneke JP , Fahs CA , et al . The effects of elastic band resistance training combined with blood flow restriction on strength, total bone-free lean body mass and muscle thickness in postmenopausal women

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Panagiota Klentrou, Kirina Angrish, Nafisa Awadia, Nigel Kurgan, Rozalia Kouvelioti and Bareket Falk

10.2 (0.4) 10.5 (0.4) .23 Height, cm 142.6 (2.0) 146.5 (3.3) .17 Body mass, kg 34.4 (1.5) 38.4 (2.8) .14 Body mass index, kg·m −2 16.9 (0.6) 17.6 (0.5) .34 Body fat, % 12.0 (1.7) 15.0 (2.4) .39 Lean body mass, kg 30.2 (1.2) 26.2 (4.0)* .03 Age from peak height velocity, y −2.9 (0.2) −0.9 (0.4)* .03

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Samuel G. Wittekind, Nicholas M. Edwards, Philip R. Khoury, Connie E. McCoy, Lawrence M. Dolan, Thomas R. Kimball and Elaine M. Urbina

type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were matched by age, sex, and race to lean [body mass index (BMI) < 85th percentile] and obese (BMI > 95th percentile) control subjects proven nondiabetic by oral glucose tolerance test as part of a study of CV aging. 12 Subjects with valid exposure and outcome data

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Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen Wallman and Georgina Kent

, fat mass; LBM, lean body mass; VO 2 peak, peak oxygen uptake. Preliminary Procedures Participant height, body mass, and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan; LG–Luna Prodigy, GE Medical Systems, Waukesha, WI) were measured. Participants then completed a peak-oxygen-uptake ( V ˙ O 2

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Hyunjae Jeon, Melanie L. McGrath, Neal Grandgenett and Adam B. Rosen

alignments, patellar position, patellar laxity, and lean body mass. References 1. Crossley KM , Thancanamootoo K , Metcalf BR , Cook JL , Purdam CR , Warden SJ . Clinical features of patellar tendinopathy and their implications for rehabilitation . J Orthop Res . 2007 ; 25 ( 9 ): 1164

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Abby L. Cheng, John A. Merlo, Devyani Hunt, Ted Yemm, Robert H. Brophy and Heidi Prather

female youth ice hockey athletes who had reached menarche compared with those who had not, with an incidence rate ratio of 4.1 (95% CI, 1.0–16.8). These findings are notable because although BMI is not an ideal measure of fat versus lean body mass, body composition is modifiable and further investigation