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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

assist in training harder, gaining lean body mass, or maintaining lean mass during periods of immobilization after injury ( Branch, 2003 ; Gualano et al., 2012 ; Heaton et al., 2017 ). Decisions on supplement use therefore need to consider both the context of use and the specific protocol employed

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Kim Beals, Katherine A. Perlsweig, John E. Haubenstriker, Mita Lovalekar, Chris P. Beck, Darcie L. Yount, Matthew E. Darnell, Katelyn Allison and Bradley C. Nindl

essential amino acids throughout the day can help maintain lean body mass and muscle strength during periods of suboptimal caloric intake ( Pasiakos et al., 2013 ; Phillips, 2013 ; Rodriguez, 2013 ). Students consumed a mean fat intake of 1.6 ± 0.4 g·kg −1 ·day −1 (42% ± 5.5% total calories) (RC) and 1

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Todd Miller, Stephanie Mull, Alan Albert Aragon, James Krieger and Brad Jon Schoenfeld

training in overweight women on a ketogenic diet conserved lean body mass while reducing body fat . Nutrition & Metabolism, 7 , 17 . PubMed doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-17 10.1186/1743-7075-7-17 Josse , A.R. , Atkinson , S.A. , Tarnopolsky , M.A. , & Phillips , S.M. ( 2011 ). Increased consumption

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Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin and Klavs Madsen

.2165/00007256-200535050-00003 10.2165/00007256-200535050-00003 Mettler , S. , Mitchell , N. , & Tipton , K.D. ( 2010 ). Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 ( 2 ), 326 – 337 . PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2ef8e 10.1249/MSS

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Ellen Freiberger, Elisabeth Rydwik, Astrid Chorus, Erwin Tak, Christophe Delecluse, Federico Schena, Nina Waaler, Bob Laventure and Nico van Meeteren

. PLoS ONE, 10 ( 2 ), e0118293 . PubMed 10.1371/journal.pone.0118293 Peterson , M.D. , Sen , A. , & Gordon , P.M. ( 2011 ). Influence of resistance exercise on lean body mass in aging adults: A meta-analysis . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43 , 249 – 258 . PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS

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David Silva, Ronaldo Gabriel, Helena Moreira, João Abrantes and Aurélio Faria

. ( 2008 ). Contribution of the lean body mass to insulin resistance in postmenopausal women with visceral obesity: A monet study . Obesity, 16 ( 5 ), 1085 – 1093 . PubMed doi:10.1038/oby.2008.23. 10.1038/oby.2008.23 Bus , S.A. , & Lange , A. ( 2005 ). A comparison of the 1-step, 2-step, and 3

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Samuel G. Wittekind, Nicholas M. Edwards, Philip R. Khoury, Connie E. McCoy, Lawrence M. Dolan, Thomas R. Kimball and Elaine M. Urbina

type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were matched by age, sex, and race to lean [body mass index (BMI) < 85th percentile] and obese (BMI > 95th percentile) control subjects proven nondiabetic by oral glucose tolerance test as part of a study of CV aging. 12 Subjects with valid exposure and outcome data

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Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen Wallman and Georgina Kent

, fat mass; LBM, lean body mass; VO 2 peak, peak oxygen uptake. Preliminary Procedures Participant height, body mass, and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan; LG–Luna Prodigy, GE Medical Systems, Waukesha, WI) were measured. Participants then completed a peak-oxygen-uptake ( V ˙ O 2

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Thomas Haugen, Jørgen Danielsen, Leif Olav Alnes, David McGhie, Øyvind Sandbakk and Gertjan Ettema

body mass: 70.4 [4.8] kg, fat mass: 9.7% [1.4%], and 100-m personal best: 10.86 [0.22] s) voluntarily signed up for this study. The athletes had performed sprint training for 9 (4) years. All athletes were healthy and free of injuries at the time of testing. The Norwegian Data Protection Authority

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Emily Arentson-Lantz, Elfego Galvan, Adam Wacher, Christopher S. Fry and Douglas Paddon-Jones

/min (vs. resting: 65 ± 3 beats/min). The BR protocol ensured that all other weight bearings and most other incidental activities of daily living (particularly of the lower body) were minimized. Body Composition BR had a characteristically negative effect on lean body mass (Table  2 ). Total fat mass was