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J. Luke Pryor, Brittany Christensen, Catherine G. R. Jackson and Stephanie Moore-Reed

Despite the well-known health benefits associated with regular exercise (increased lean body mass and musculoskeletal health and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality, among other benefits), 3 , 4 less than 10% to 20% of adults in the United States participate in sufficient

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Trent Stellingwerff

: The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) . Mettler , S. , Mitchell , N. , & Tipton , K.D. ( 2010 ). Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 ( 2 ), 326 – 337 . PubMed doi

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

assist in training harder, gaining lean body mass, or maintaining lean mass during periods of immobilization after injury ( Branch, 2003 ; Gualano et al., 2012 ; Heaton et al., 2017 ). Decisions on supplement use therefore need to consider both the context of use and the specific protocol employed

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David Silva, Ronaldo Gabriel, Helena Moreira, João Abrantes and Aurélio Faria

. ( 2008 ). Contribution of the lean body mass to insulin resistance in postmenopausal women with visceral obesity: A monet study . Obesity, 16 ( 5 ), 1085 – 1093 . PubMed doi:10.1038/oby.2008.23. 10.1038/oby.2008.23 Bus , S.A. , & Lange , A. ( 2005 ). A comparison of the 1-step, 2-step, and 3

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Panagiota Klentrou, Kirina Angrish, Nafisa Awadia, Nigel Kurgan, Rozalia Kouvelioti and Bareket Falk

10.2 (0.4) 10.5 (0.4) .23 Height, cm 142.6 (2.0) 146.5 (3.3) .17 Body mass, kg 34.4 (1.5) 38.4 (2.8) .14 Body mass index, kg·m −2 16.9 (0.6) 17.6 (0.5) .34 Body fat, % 12.0 (1.7) 15.0 (2.4) .39 Lean body mass, kg 30.2 (1.2) 26.2 (4.0)* .03 Age from peak height velocity, y −2.9 (0.2) −0.9 (0.4)* .03

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Ellen Freiberger, Elisabeth Rydwik, Astrid Chorus, Erwin Tak, Christophe Delecluse, Federico Schena, Nina Waaler, Bob Laventure and Nico van Meeteren

. PLoS ONE, 10 ( 2 ), e0118293 . PubMed 10.1371/journal.pone.0118293 Peterson , M.D. , Sen , A. , & Gordon , P.M. ( 2011 ). Influence of resistance exercise on lean body mass in aging adults: A meta-analysis . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43 , 249 – 258 . PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS

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Jennifer Dekker, Katlynne Nelson, Nigel Kurgan, Bareket Falk, Andrea Josse and Panagiota Klentrou

proper form and technique were used throughout the set. Measurements Height and seated height were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm using a stadiometer (Ellard Instruments, Monroe WA, USA), with no shoes and light clothes. Body mass (kg) as well as body composition including lean body mass, fat mass, and

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Kim Beals, Katherine A. Perlsweig, John E. Haubenstriker, Mita Lovalekar, Chris P. Beck, Darcie L. Yount, Matthew E. Darnell, Katelyn Allison and Bradley C. Nindl

essential amino acids throughout the day can help maintain lean body mass and muscle strength during periods of suboptimal caloric intake ( Pasiakos et al., 2013 ; Phillips, 2013 ; Rodriguez, 2013 ). Students consumed a mean fat intake of 1.6 ± 0.4 g·kg −1 ·day −1 (42% ± 5.5% total calories) (RC) and 1

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Guy El Hajj Boutros, José A. Morais and Antony D. Karelis

strength, and lean body mass in old type 2 diabetic patients: A meta-analysis . Diabetes Therapy, 8 ( 3 ), 459 – 473 . doi:10.1007/s13300-017-0258-3 10.1007/s13300-017-0258-3 Leong , D.P. , Teo , K.K. , Rangarajan , S. , Lopez-Jaramillo , P. , Avezum , A. , Jr. , Orlandini , A

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Alexander J. Bedard, Kevin A. Bigelman, Lynn R. Fielitz, Jeffrey D. Coelho, William B. Kobbe, Renard O. Barone, Nicholas H. Gist and John E. Palmer

, researchers have looked at other activities such as soccer, basketball, and ice hockey, concluding that female athletes may be at a greater risk for concussion than males ( Dick, 2009 ). This might be a result of differences in lean body mass, head mass, strength of the neck muscles, or physiological