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J. Luke Pryor, Brittany Christensen, Catherine G. R. Jackson and Stephanie Moore-Reed

Despite the well-known health benefits associated with regular exercise (increased lean body mass and musculoskeletal health and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality, among other benefits), 3 , 4 less than 10% to 20% of adults in the United States participate in sufficient

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

assist in training harder, gaining lean body mass, or maintaining lean mass during periods of immobilization after injury ( Branch, 2003 ; Gualano et al., 2012 ; Heaton et al., 2017 ). Decisions on supplement use therefore need to consider both the context of use and the specific protocol employed

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Jennifer Dekker, Katlynne Nelson, Nigel Kurgan, Bareket Falk, Andrea Josse and Panagiota Klentrou

proper form and technique were used throughout the set. Measurements Height and seated height were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm using a stadiometer (Ellard Instruments, Monroe WA, USA), with no shoes and light clothes. Body mass (kg) as well as body composition including lean body mass, fat mass, and

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Alexander J. Bedard, Kevin A. Bigelman, Lynn R. Fielitz, Jeffrey D. Coelho, William B. Kobbe, Renard O. Barone, Nicholas H. Gist and John E. Palmer

, researchers have looked at other activities such as soccer, basketball, and ice hockey, concluding that female athletes may be at a greater risk for concussion than males ( Dick, 2009 ). This might be a result of differences in lean body mass, head mass, strength of the neck muscles, or physiological

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Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen Wallman and Georgina Kent

, fat mass; LBM, lean body mass; VO 2 peak, peak oxygen uptake. Preliminary Procedures Participant height, body mass, and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan; LG–Luna Prodigy, GE Medical Systems, Waukesha, WI) were measured. Participants then completed a peak-oxygen-uptake ( V ˙ O 2

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David Silva, Ronaldo Gabriel, Helena Moreira, João Abrantes and Aurélio Faria

. ( 2008 ). Contribution of the lean body mass to insulin resistance in postmenopausal women with visceral obesity: A monet study . Obesity, 16 ( 5 ), 1085 – 1093 . PubMed doi:10.1038/oby.2008.23. 10.1038/oby.2008.23 Bus , S.A. , & Lange , A. ( 2005 ). A comparison of the 1-step, 2-step, and 3

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Samuel G. Wittekind, Nicholas M. Edwards, Philip R. Khoury, Connie E. McCoy, Lawrence M. Dolan, Thomas R. Kimball and Elaine M. Urbina

type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were matched by age, sex, and race to lean [body mass index (BMI) < 85th percentile] and obese (BMI > 95th percentile) control subjects proven nondiabetic by oral glucose tolerance test as part of a study of CV aging. 12 Subjects with valid exposure and outcome data

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Panagiota Klentrou, Kirina Angrish, Nafisa Awadia, Nigel Kurgan, Rozalia Kouvelioti and Bareket Falk

10.2 (0.4) 10.5 (0.4) .23 Height, cm 142.6 (2.0) 146.5 (3.3) .17 Body mass, kg 34.4 (1.5) 38.4 (2.8) .14 Body mass index, kg·m −2 16.9 (0.6) 17.6 (0.5) .34 Body fat, % 12.0 (1.7) 15.0 (2.4) .39 Lean body mass, kg 30.2 (1.2) 26.2 (4.0)* .03 Age from peak height velocity, y −2.9 (0.2) −0.9 (0.4)* .03

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Guy El Hajj Boutros, José A. Morais and Antony D. Karelis

strength, and lean body mass in old type 2 diabetic patients: A meta-analysis . Diabetes Therapy, 8 ( 3 ), 459 – 473 . doi:10.1007/s13300-017-0258-3 10.1007/s13300-017-0258-3 Leong , D.P. , Teo , K.K. , Rangarajan , S. , Lopez-Jaramillo , P. , Avezum , A. , Jr. , Orlandini , A

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Todd Miller, Stephanie Mull, Alan Albert Aragon, James Krieger and Brad Jon Schoenfeld

training in overweight women on a ketogenic diet conserved lean body mass while reducing body fat . Nutrition & Metabolism, 7 , 17 . PubMed doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-17 10.1186/1743-7075-7-17 Josse , A.R. , Atkinson , S.A. , Tarnopolsky , M.A. , & Phillips , S.M. ( 2011 ). Increased consumption