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Martin J. MacInnis, Aaron C.Q. Thomas and Stuart M. Phillips

the same week. Ramp Incremental Exercise Test Ramp incremental exercise tests were performed on an electronically braked cycle ergometer (Velotron; Racer Mate Inc., Seattle, WA). Participants wore a heart rate monitor (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) and a face mask (Hans Rudolph Inc, Shawnee, KS

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Bruna M.A. Saraiva, Geferson S. Araujo, Evandro F. Sperandio, Alberto O. Gotfryd, Victor Z. Dourado and Milena C. Vidotto

test ( 12 ). The ISWT was performed according to the methods described by Singh et al ( 20 ). The interval between tests was set at 30 minutes or the return of the variables at baseline, mentioned previously. During the second ISWT, participants breathed through a face mask with minimum dead space (50

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Sarah P. Shultz, Jinsup Song, Andrew P. Kraszewski, Jocelyn F. Hafer, Smita Rao, Sherry Backus, Rajshree M. Hillstrom and Howard J. Hillstrom

individual plantar regions of a 12-segment mask for each trial 29 ; an average value across all 5 trials was used in the statistical analysis. Foot function variables included peak pressure (N / cm 2 ), maximum force (N), pressure time integral (N · s / cm 2 ), force time integral (N · s), and maximum

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Elizabeth F. Teel, Stephen W. Marshall, L. Gregory Appelbaum, Claudio L. Battaglini, Kevin A. Carneiro, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, Johna K. Register-Mihalik and Jason P. Mihalik

for a respiratory mask, and seat height was adjusted for proper pedaling mechanics on the cycle ergometer. Participants underwent the earliest stages of the CPET following a warm-up at no resistance to minimize any learning effect associated with subsequent CPET administrations. Test sessions were

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Vera K. Tsenkova, Chioun Lee and Jennifer Morozink Boylan

disease cannot be overstated. We found evidence that combining physical activity across domains masks important variation in the socioeconomic precursors and glucoregulatory sequelae of physical activity. Consistent with the findings of recent systematic reviews, we found that socioeconomic disadvantage

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David Silva, Ronaldo Gabriel, Helena Moreira, João Abrantes and Aurélio Faria

variation on the data. Using the scalable mask automatically provided by the Footscan Software (Footscan 7.1; RSscan International), the footprint was divided into 10 anatomic pressure areas (Figure  2 ): medial heel (HM), lateral heel (HL), metatarsal areas (M1–M5), midfoot (MF), hallux (T1), and toes (T2

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Sarah J. Willis, Grégoire P. Millet and Fabio Borrani

description that follows), which was performed to create a cycling baseline to normalize the NIRS with a more stable and reliable signal than a resting baseline. Thereafter, participants took a short break of 5 minutes to recover, while placing the oxygen uptake mask and pulse oxygen saturation probe, and a 6

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Michael E. Hales and John D. Johnson II

) familiarization with the agility course and (2) a warm-up session. After the preparatory phase, the athlete performed the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) protocol for each muscle selected for testing. Next, the gas analyzer and face mask were fitted to the athlete and this was followed by a 5-minute

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Jacinta M. Saldaris, Grant J. Landers and Brendan S. Lay

making and working memory with ICE, such as thermal sensation. After precooling with ICE, RPTS was lower compared with CON, therefore participants began the run in the heat feeling cooler. It has been suggested that cooling masks the true state of the body, 28 thus may delay the point at which cognitive

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Mads S. Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R. Mikkelsen and Mette Hansen

during the study period. The subjects were blinded to the content of the presleep beverages. To mask the content, each drink (protein and carbohydrate) came in two flavors (protein: apple and grapefruit; carbohydrate: berry and pomegranate). Each subject received the same flavored drink every night by