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David Silva, Ronaldo Gabriel, Helena Moreira, João Abrantes and Aurélio Faria

variation on the data. Using the scalable mask automatically provided by the Footscan Software (Footscan 7.1; RSscan International), the footprint was divided into 10 anatomic pressure areas (Figure  2 ): medial heel (HM), lateral heel (HL), metatarsal areas (M1–M5), midfoot (MF), hallux (T1), and toes (T2

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Haresh T. Suppiah, Chee Yong Low, Gabriel Choong and Michael Chia

electroencephalographic sensor (Zeo, Newton, MA) that was configured to obtain real-time objective sleep measures. 22 This system has been validated against an in-laboratory polysomnograpy. 23 For the nap, participants were ushered into a darkened room and allowed to nap with the assistance of earplugs and eye masks

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Rienk M.A. van der Slikke, Daan J.J. Bregman, Monique A.M. Berger, Annemarie M.H. de Witte and Dirk-Jan (H.) E.J. Veeger

less demanding field positions, possibly masking their potential best performance levels. Therefore, assessment of performance in a match alone provides a narrowed image, possibly disregarding best possible performance levels. By contrast, testing best performance in an isolated field test or lab

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John Molphy, John W. Dickinson, Neil J. Chester, Mike Loosemore and Gregory Whyte

warm-up (5 min on a motorized treadmill at 10 kph). The 3-km time trials were performed under controlled laboratory conditions of 18°C, 20.9% O 2 , and 40% humidity. During the time trial, participants wore a heart rate (HR) monitor (Polar RS400; Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) and a face mask

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Stephen M. Glass, Christopher K. Rhea, Matthew W. Wittstein, Scott E. Ross, John P. Florian and F.J. Haran

hypermetropia (ie, images become severely blurred and unfocused) and the eye loses about two-thirds of its refractive power. 13 , 14 Diving masks restore the air-to-cornea interface allowing for high underwater acuity; however, they produce a refraction at their outer surface, which results in a narrowing of

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Sarah P. Shultz, Jinsup Song, Andrew P. Kraszewski, Jocelyn F. Hafer, Smita Rao, Sherry Backus, Rajshree M. Hillstrom and Howard J. Hillstrom

individual plantar regions of a 12-segment mask for each trial 29 ; an average value across all 5 trials was used in the statistical analysis. Foot function variables included peak pressure (N / cm 2 ), maximum force (N), pressure time integral (N · s / cm 2 ), force time integral (N · s), and maximum

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Anne Delextrat, Sinead Mackessy, Luis Arceo-Rendon, Aaron Scanlan, Roger Ramsbottom and Julio Calleja-Gonzalez

serial loading avoids the GI disturbances usually reported with such doses ingested acutely ( Burke & Pyne, 2007 ). In addition, capsules were preferred to powder to mask the taste of the substances ingested and allow blinding of the participants to the experimental conditions. Capsules were consumed in

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Matthew Pearce, David H. Saunders, Peter Allison and Anthony P. Turner

those from less deprived areas in the sample—characteristics of those reported to have more restricted outdoor time. 6 , 35 – 37 The fact that this sample had relatively high activity levels and low deprivation may mask context-specific barriers to physical activity for the wider population. Strengths

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Mhairi J. MacDonald, Samantha G. Fawkner, Ailsa G. Niven and David Rowe

-CPX; Viasys Healthcare, Höchberg, Germany). The participants breathed through an appropriately sized tight-fitting mask (Hans Rudolph Inc, Shawnee Mission, KS) with the total dead space volume, including turbine, of 120 mL. The gas analyzer, volume sensor, and turbine were calibrated according to the

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Richard J. Boergers, Thomas G. Bowman, Nicole Sgherza, Marguerite Montjoy, Melanie Lu and Christopher W. O’Brien

( 1 ): 42 – 48 . PubMed ID: 24377964 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-48.6.11 10.4085/1062-6050-48.6.11 24377964 11. Swartz E , Mihalik J , Beltz N , Day M , Decoster L . Face mask removal is safer than helmet removal for emergent airway access in American football . Spine J . 2014 ; 14 : 996