The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in preparatory muscle activation patterns across different drop heights in female athletes. Sixteen female high school volleyball players performed the drop vertical jump from three different drop heights. Surface electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings were collected during the movement trials. As the drop height increased, muscle activation of the quadriceps during preparatory phase also increased (p < .05). However, the hamstrings activation showed no similar increases relative to drop height. Female athletes appear to preferentially rely on increased quadriceps activation, without an increase in hamstrings activation, with increased plyometric intensity. The resultant decreased activation ratio of the hamstrings relative to quadriceps before landing may represent altered dynamic knee stability and may contribute to the increased risk of ACL injury in female athletes.
Kevin R. Ford, Gregory D. Myer, Laura C. Schmitt, Timothy L. Uhl and Timothy E. Hewett
Gloria M. Beim, Jorge L. Giraldo, Danny M. Pincivero, Matthew J. Borror and Freddie H. Fu
The purpose of this study was to compare electromyographic (EMG) activity of the abdominal muscles between the crunch exercise and five other popular abdominal exercises. Surface EMG recordings of four muscles (upper rectus, lower rectus, external oblique, and internal oblique) of the anterior abdominal wall were collected and analyzed on 20 healthy, male volunteers. EMG activity was recorded during execution of the abdominal crunch, the sit-up, and exercises performed with the Abflex machine, the AbRoller, the Nordic Track Ab Works, and the Nautilus crunch machine. The results indicate that the crunch exercise is comparable to the five other abdominal exercises with respect to muscle activation of the internal and external abdominal oblique muscles. Activation of the upper rectus abdominal muscles appears to be best achieved with the Abflex machine, whereas the crunch exercise is superior to the sit-up for activation of the upper and lower rectus abdominal muscles.
Kieran O’Sullivan, Ellen Herbert, David Sainsbury, Karen McCreesh and Amanda Clifford
The gluteus medius (Gmed) is proposed to consist of 3 functional subdivisions (anterior, middle, and posterior). Gmed weakness and dysfunction have been implicated in numerous lower extremity disorders, including patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). PFPS is a knee condition that frequently occurs in females and is associated with activities such as squatting and stair climbing. There is a lack of evidence for the role of the subdivisions of the Gmed in females with and without PFPS.
To compare muscle activation in the 3 Gmed subdivisions during 4 weight-bearing exercises in women with and without PFPS.
Single-session, repeated-measures observational study.
University research laboratory.
Convenience sample of 12 women with PFPS and 12 age- and gender-matched asymptomatic controls.
Participants performed 4 weight-bearing exercises (wall press, pelvic drop, step-up-and-over, and unilateral squat) 3 times while surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of the Gmed segments was recorded.
Main Outcome Measures:
sEMG muscle activity for each functional subdivision of the Gmed during each weight-bearing exercise was analyzed using a mixed between–within-subjects ANOVA (post hoc Bonferroni).
No statistically significant differences in muscle activation were found between the PFPS and healthy participants (P = .97). Furthermore, there were no statistically significant differences between the exercises (P = .19) or muscle fibers (P = .36) independent of group analyzed. However, the activation of the subdivisions varied according to the exercise performed (P = .003).
Similar levels of muscle activation were recorded in the Gmed subdivisions of the PFPS and healthy participants during the different exercises. This is the first study to examine all 3 Gmed subdivisions in PFPS. Future studies using larger sample sizes should also investigate onset and duration of muscle activation in all Gmed subdivisions in both healthy individuals and those with PFPS.
Jeni R. McNeal, William A. Sands and Michael H. Stone
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a maximal repeated-jumps task on force production, muscle activation and kinematics, and to determine if changes in performance were dependent on gender.
Eleven male and nine female athletes performed continuous countermovement jumps for 60 s on a force platform while muscle activation was assessed using surface electromyography. Performances were videotaped and digitized (60 Hz). Data were averaged across three jumps in 10-s intervals from the initial jump to the final 10 s of the test.
No interaction between time and gender was evident for any variable; therefore, all results represent data collapsed across gender. Preactivation magnitude decreased across time periods for anterior tibialis (AT, P < .001), gastrocnemius (GAS, P < .001) and biceps femoris (BF, P = .03), but not for vastus lateralis (VL, P = .16). Muscle activation during ground contact did not change across time for BF; however, VL, G, and AT showed significant reductions (all P < .001). Peak force was reduced at 40 s compared with the initial jumps, and continued to be reduced at 50 and 60 s (all P < .05). The time from peak force to takeoff was greater at 50 and 60 s compared with the initial jumps (P < .05). Both knee fexion and ankle dorsifexion were reduced across time (both P < .001), whereas no change in relative hip angle was evident (P = .10). Absolute angle of the trunk increased with time (P < .001), whereas the absolute angle of the shank decreased (P < .001).
In response to the fatiguing task, subjects reduced muscle activation and force production and altered jumping technique; however, these changes were not dependent on gender.
Simon Wang and Stuart M. McGill
Spine stability is ensured through isometric coactivation of the torso muscles; however, these same muscles are used cyclically to assist ventilation. Our objective was to investigate this apparent paradoxical role (isometric contraction for stability or rhythmic contraction for ventilation) of some selected torso muscles that are involved in both ventilation and support of the spine. Eight, asymptomatic, male subjects provided data on low back moments, motion, muscle activation, and hand force. These data were input to an anatomically detailed, biologically driven model from which spine load and a lumbar spine stability index was obtained. Results revealed that subjects entrained their torso stabilization muscles to breathe during demanding ventilation tasks. Increases in lung volume and back extensor muscle activation coincided with increases in spine stability, whereas declines in spine stability were observed during periods of low lung inflation volume and simultaneously low levels of torso muscle activation. As a case study, aberrant ventilation motor patterns (poor muscle entrainment), seen in one subject, compromised spine stability. Those interested in rehabilitation of patients with lung compromise and concomitant back troubles would be assisted with knowledge of the mechanical links between ventilation during tasks that impose spine loading.
Jill L. McNitt-Gray
The target article, thoughtfully constructed by Dr. Prilutsky, effectively synthesizes available data on multijoint movements regarding coordination patterns of major two- and one-joint muscles, provides evidence for an optimization criterion that predicts critical features of muscle activation patterns, and explores the functional consequences of muscle coordination. This work also provides a clear set of definitions and an organizational framework that is currently needed for a productive interdisciplinary discussion regarding the underlying control mechanisms used during realistic multijoint movements. Although identification of an optimization criterion that predicts muscle recruitment strategies would greatly simplify control logic required for rehabilitation and musculoskeletal modeling, our experimental data during landings indicate more than one criterion may exist. Preliminary review of our experimental landing data suggests the rules identified by Prilutsky apparently hold for some subjects during portions of the landing movements. The presence of more than one muscle activation pattern used to achieve the same NJMs demonstrates there may be more than one optimization criterion that predicts critical features of muscle activation patterns. The functional consequences of more than one control criterion may also prove to be an asset, particularly when adapting to different environmental constraints.
Kathleen A. Swanik, Kellie Huxel Bliven and Charles Buz Swanik
There are contradictory data on optimal muscle-activation strategies for restoring shoulder stability. Further investigation of neuromuscular-control strategies for glenohumeral-joint stability will guide clinicians in decisions regarding appropriate rehabilitation exercises.
To determine whether subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor (anteroposterior force couple) muscle activation differ between 4 shoulder exercises and describe coactivation ratios and individual muscle-recruitment characteristics of rotator-cuff muscles throughout each shoulder exercise.
healthy, physically active men, age 20.55 ± 2.0 y.
4 rehabilitation exercises: pitchback, PNF D2 pattern with tubing, push-up plus, and slide board.
Main Outcomes Measures:
Mean coactivation level, coactivation-ratio patterns, and level (area) of muscle-activation patterns of the subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor throughout each exercise.
Coactivation levels varied throughout each exercise. Subscapularis activity was consistently higher than that of the infraspinatus and teres minor combined at the start of each exercise and in end ranges of motion. Individual muscle-recruitment levels in the subscapularis were also different between exercises.
Results provide descriptive data for determining normative coactivation-ratio values for muscle recruitment for the functional exercises studied. Differences in subscapularis activation suggest a reliance to resist anteriorly directed forces.
Ji-hyun Lee, Heon-seock Cynn, Sil-ah Choi, Tae-lim Yoon and Hyo-jung Jeong
Gluteus medius (Gmed) weakness is associated with some lower-extremity injuries. People with Gmed weakness might compensate by activating the tensor fasciae latae (TFL). Different hip rotations in the transverse plane may affect Gmed and TFL muscle activity during isometric side-lying hip abduction (SHA).
To compare Gmed and TFL muscle activity and the Gmed:TFL muscle-activity ratio during SHA exercise with 3 different hip rotations.
The effects of different hip rotations on Gmed, TFL, and the Gmed:TFL muscle-activity ratio during isometric SHA were analyzed with 1-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance.
University research laboratory.
20 healthy university students were recruited in this study.
Participants performed isometric SHA: frontal SHA with neutral hip (frontal SHAN), frontal SHA with hip medial rotation (frontal SHA-MR), and frontal SHA with hip lateral rotation (frontal SHA-LR).
Main Outcome Measures:
Surface electromyography measured the activity of the Gmed and the TFL. A 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance assessed the statistical significance of Gmed and TFL muscle activity. When there was a significant difference, a Bonferroni adjustment was performed.
Frontal SHA-MR showed significantly greater Gmed muscle activation than frontal SHA-N (P = .000) or frontal SHA-LR (P = .015). Frontal SHA-LR showed significantly greater TFL muscle activation than frontal SHA-N (P = .002). Frontal SHA-MR also resulted in a significantly greater Gmed:TFL muscle-activity ratio than frontal SHA-N (P = .004) or frontal SHA-LR (P = .000), and frontal SHA-N was significantly greater than frontal SHA-LR (P = .000).
Frontal SHA-MR results in greater Gmed muscle activation and a higher Gmed:TFL muscle ratio.
Birgit Larsen, Michael Voigt and Michael J. Grey
The influence of pedaling frequency and crank load on the sensitivity of the soleus short latency stretch reflex (SLR) was examined in nine healthy subjects during pedaling by the use of a custom-built robotic actuator. The SLR decreased successively in downstroke when pedaling frequency increased from 20 to 40 and 60 revolutions per minute at a constant crank load (p = .005). The SLR was unchanged at crank load increases of 2.6 or 5.1 Nm at a constant pedaling frequency (p > .05). Accordingly, it was shown that increased muscle activation level as a consequence of added crank load and increased movement speed does not increase the sensitivity of the soleus SLR.
The current understanding of child-adult differences in muscular and neuromotor function will be reviewed while highlighting the gaps in our knowledge and raising research questions that could be addressed in the immediate or near future. Topics include muscle activation, muscle composition, strength attributes, strength- and aerobic-training, neuromotor development, where neuromuscular differences originate from, and the possible interrelationships between motor and cognitive function. The various differences will be discussed on their specific merits, but also as possible manifestations of a common underlying factor which, if true, could provide a more holistic view of child-adult functional differences.