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Thomas M. Doering, Peter R. Reaburn, Nattai R. Borges, Gregory R. Cox and David G. Jenkins

Following exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), masters athletes take longer to recover than younger athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of higher than recommended postexercise protein feedings on the recovery of knee extensor peak isometric torque (PIT), perceptions of recovery, and cycling time trial (TT) performance following EIMD in masters triathletes. Eight masters triathletes (52 ± 2 y, V̇O2max, 51.8 ± 4.2 ml•kg-1•min-1) completed two trials separated by seven days in a randomized, doubleblind, crossover study. Trials consisted of morning PIT testing and a 30-min downhill run followed by an eight-hour recovery. During recovery, a moderate (MPI; 0.3 g•kg-1•bolus-1) or high (0.6 g•kg-1•bolus-1) protein intake (HPI) was consumed in three bolus feedings at two hour intervals commencing immediately postexercise. PIT testing and a 7 kJ•kg-1 cycling TT were completed postintervention. Perceptions of recovery were assessed pre- and postexercise. The HPI did not significantly improve recovery compared with MPI (p > .05). However, comparison of within-treatment change shows the HPI provided a moderate beneficial effect (d = 0.66), attenuating the loss of afternoon PIT (-3.6%, d = 0.09) compared with the MPI (-8.6%, d = 0.24). The HPI provided a large beneficial effect (d = 0.83), reducing perceived fatigue over the eight-hour recovery (d = 1.25) compared with the MPI (d = 0.22). Despite these effects, cycling performance was unchanged (HPI = 2395 ± 297 s vs. MPI = 2369 ± 278 s; d = 0.09). In conclusion, doubling the recommended postexercise protein intake did not significantly improve recovery in masters athletes; however, HPI provided moderate to large beneficial effects on recovery that may be meaningful following EIMD.

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Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

times and reducing muscle fatigue limiting postexercise strength losses. 1 After intense exercise, PBMT confines the degree of exercise-induced muscle damage, limiting the need for a large inflammatory process. 2 It also reduces patient-reported muscle soreness, modulates growth factors and myogenic

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Jeffrey R. Doeringer, Megan Colas, Corey Peacock and Dustin R. Gatens

would not change the muscle performance (flexibility, power, speed, and agility) 48 hr after intervention and would reduce the perceived pain/soreness at 24 hr and 48 hr after a muscle damage protocol when compared to a control group. Methods Participants Twenty-two healthy college athletes volunteered

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Brett S. Pexa, Eric D. Ryan, Elizabeth E. Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski and Joseph B. Myers

, leading to an influx of edema within the muscle tissue, 16 , 18 and this edema within the muscle is reflected by increased CSA. 26 Previous research indicates that eccentric muscle damaging protocols that mimic baseball pitching increases infraspinatus CSA when measured with ultrasound. 19 When

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

Injuries There is limited direct research on nutrition to prevent/treat muscle injuries, with most research originating from laboratory-induced muscle damage to study delayed onset muscle soreness ( Owens et al., 2019 ). Although such studies provide insights into potential nutritional strategies, it must

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Kelly A. Brock, Lindsey E. Eberman, Richard H. Laird IV, David J. Elmer and Kenneth E. Games

Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is a consequence that occurs when an individual participates in an unfamiliar or eccentrically based activity. Such activities may result in delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The severity of muscle damage is dependent on the duration, intensity, and

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Dean Norris, David Joyce, Jason Siegler, James Clock and Ric Lovell

is a multifactorial construct, a variety of monitoring strategies are often employed within the professional setting, such as markers of muscle damage, neuromuscular function (NF), endocrine responses, immune status, and psychological well-being. 3 , 4 While informative, due to cost and time

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Stephen M. Cornish, Jeremie E. Chase, Eric M. Bugera and Gordon G. Giesbrecht

in skeletal muscle ( McKay et al., 2009 ). High-intensity exercise also increases blood myoglobin levels, indicating muscle damage, which can stimulate muscle growth in an untrained state, but muscle damage is likely not necessary in a trained state to induce muscle hypertrophy ( Damas et al., 2016

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Darren J. Paul, Gustavo Tomazoli and George P. Nassis

, between twice daily training sessions, if required) and may provide a more suitable alternative than some of the aforementioned tools. Previous research has shown the PRS to be sensitive in detecting changes in sprint running performance 5 and to somewhat indicate the presence of certain muscle damage blood

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Sabrina Skorski, Iñigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet, Romain Meeusen, Aaron J. Coutts and Tim Meyer

, markers of muscle damage, and performance after a soccer match, 18 questioning the link between oxidative stress and performance recovery. Indeed, a growing body of literature suggests that free radicals might act as signaling molecules, specifically activating redox-sensitive transcription factors