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Milou Beelen, Louise M. Burke, Martin J. Gibala and Luc J.C. van Loon

During postexercise recovery, optimal nutritional intake is important to replenish endogenous substrate stores and to facilitate muscle-damage repair and reconditioning. After exhaustive endurance-type exercise, muscle glycogen repletion forms the most important factor determining the time needed to recover. Postexercise carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion has been well established as the most important determinant of muscle glycogen synthesis. Coingestion of protein and/or amino acids does not seem to further increase muscle glycogensynthesis rates when CHO intake exceeds 1.2 g · kg−1 · hr−1. However, from a practical point of view it is not always feasible to ingest such large amounts of CHO. The combined ingestion of a small amount of protein (0.2–0.4 g · (0.2−0.4 g · kg−1 · hr−1) with less CHO (0.8 g · kg−1 · hr−1) stimulates endogenous insulin release and results in similar muscle glycogen-repletion rates as the ingestion of 1.2 g · kg−1 · hr−1 CHO. Furthermore, postexercise protein and/or amino acid administration is warranted to stimulate muscle protein synthesis, inhibit protein breakdown, and allow net muscle protein accretion. The consumption of ~20 g intact protein, or an equivalent of ~9 g essential amino acids, has been reported to maximize muscle protein-synthesis rates during the first hours of postexercise recovery. Ingestion of such small amounts of dietary protein 5 or 6 times daily might support maximal muscle protein-synthesis rates throughout the day. Consuming CHO and protein during the early phases of recovery has been shown to positively affect subsequent exercise performance and could be of specific benefit for athletes involved in multiple training or competition sessions on the same or consecutive days.

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Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

times and reducing muscle fatigue limiting postexercise strength losses. 1 After intense exercise, PBMT confines the degree of exercise-induced muscle damage, limiting the need for a large inflammatory process. 2 It also reduces patient-reported muscle soreness, modulates growth factors and myogenic

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Jeffrey R. Doeringer, Megan Colas, Corey Peacock and Dustin R. Gatens

would not change the muscle performance (flexibility, power, speed, and agility) 48 hr after intervention and would reduce the perceived pain/soreness at 24 hr and 48 hr after a muscle damage protocol when compared to a control group. Methods Participants Twenty-two healthy college athletes volunteered

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Brett S. Pexa, Eric D. Ryan, Elizabeth E. Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski and Joseph B. Myers

, leading to an influx of edema within the muscle tissue, 16 , 18 and this edema within the muscle is reflected by increased CSA. 26 Previous research indicates that eccentric muscle damaging protocols that mimic baseball pitching increases infraspinatus CSA when measured with ultrasound. 19 When

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

Injuries There is limited direct research on nutrition to prevent/treat muscle injuries, with most research originating from laboratory-induced muscle damage to study delayed onset muscle soreness ( Owens et al., 2019 ). Although such studies provide insights into potential nutritional strategies, it must

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Kelly A. Brock, Lindsey E. Eberman, Richard H. Laird IV, David J. Elmer and Kenneth E. Games

Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is a consequence that occurs when an individual participates in an unfamiliar or eccentrically based activity. Such activities may result in delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The severity of muscle damage is dependent on the duration, intensity, and

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Dean Norris, David Joyce, Jason Siegler, James Clock and Ric Lovell

is a multifactorial construct, a variety of monitoring strategies are often employed within the professional setting, such as markers of muscle damage, neuromuscular function (NF), endocrine responses, immune status, and psychological well-being. 3 , 4 While informative, due to cost and time

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Stephen M. Cornish, Jeremie E. Chase, Eric M. Bugera and Gordon G. Giesbrecht

in skeletal muscle ( McKay et al., 2009 ). High-intensity exercise also increases blood myoglobin levels, indicating muscle damage, which can stimulate muscle growth in an untrained state, but muscle damage is likely not necessary in a trained state to induce muscle hypertrophy ( Damas et al., 2016

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Darren J. Paul, Gustavo Tomazoli and George P. Nassis

, between twice daily training sessions, if required) and may provide a more suitable alternative than some of the aforementioned tools. Previous research has shown the PRS to be sensitive in detecting changes in sprint running performance 5 and to somewhat indicate the presence of certain muscle damage blood

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Sabrina Skorski, Iñigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet, Romain Meeusen, Aaron J. Coutts and Tim Meyer

, markers of muscle damage, and performance after a soccer match, 18 questioning the link between oxidative stress and performance recovery. Indeed, a growing body of literature suggests that free radicals might act as signaling molecules, specifically activating redox-sensitive transcription factors