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Maureen I. Ogamba, Kari L. Loverro, Natalie M. Laudicina, Simone V. Gill and Cara L. Lewis

During pregnancy, the female body experiences structural changes, such as weight gain. As pregnancy advances, most of the additional mass is concentrated anteriorly on the lower trunk. The purpose of this study is to analyze kinematic and kinetic changes when load is added anteriorly to the trunk, simulating a physical change experienced during pregnancy. Twenty healthy females walked on a treadmill while wearing a custom made pseudo-pregnancy sac (1 kg) under 3 load conditions: sac-only condition, 10-lb condition (4.535 kg added anteriorly), and 20-lb condition (9.07 kg added anteriorly), used to simulate pregnancy in the second trimester and at full-term pregnancy, respectively. The increase in anterior mass resulted in kinematic changes at the knee, hip, pelvis, and trunk in the sagittal and frontal planes. In addition, ankle, knee, and hip joint moments normalized to baseline mass increased with increased load; however, these moments decreased when normalized to total mass. These kinematic and kinetic changes may suggest that women modify gait biomechanics to reduce the effect of added load. Furthermore, the increase in joint moments increases stress on the musculoskeletal system and may contribute to musculoskeletal pain.

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Marco E. Cabrera, Marvin D. Lough, Carl F. Doershuk and Georgette A. DeRivera

Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients were studied to investigate the muscles’ ability to produce and sustain high-intensity short-term exercise in this population. The patients, 17 males and 23 females, ranged from 10 to 39 years of age. Each patient performed a pulmonary function test followed by a Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Based on a pulmonary function scoring system, patients were classified as having severe, moderate, or mild lung dysfunction, or normal lung function. Percent ideal body weight was used to categorize the patients as nourished or malnourished. Two indices of anaerobic performance (peak power and mean power) were determined from the WAnT and normalized by actual weight or by ideal weight. Patients in the severe and moderate groups had lower peak power (PP) and lower mean power (MP) than those in the mild and normal groups. Similarly, malnourished patients showed a lower PP and MP than did nourished patients. These results were similar regardless of whether PP or MP were normalized by weight or ideal weight. It is concluded that the anaerobic performance (muscle power and endurance) of CF patients, as assessed by the WAnT, was related to the degree of severity of the overall disease process.

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Gilbert M. Willett, Jason B. Paladino, Kory M. Barr, Jill N. Korta and Gregory M. Karst

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of weight-bearing terminal knee extension (WBKE) on normalized mean electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) and the VMO/VL ratio. Sixteen subjects with no history of knee dysfunction participated. Surface EMG data were recorded from the VMO and VL of subjects' test legs as they performed the WBKE exercise under four conditions, three involving elastic resistance and one involving no elastic resistance. EMG data were normalized relative to a maximal isometric quadriceps contraction, and overall mean VMO and VL activity and the VMO/VL ratio were determined for all conditions. The three conditions utilizing elastic resistance showed higher mean VMO and VL activity than the no-resistance condition. The VMO/ VL ratio was not significantly altered during any exercise condition as compared to maximal, quadriceps setting exercise. WBKE against elastic resistance was superior to the same exercise without resistance for generating mean VMO and VL activity. Performance of the WBKE, regardless of the position of lower extremity rotation, does not selectively activate the VMO apart from, or to a greater degree than, the VL.

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Daniel A. Jacobs and Daniel P. Ferris

Instrumented insoles could benefit locomotion research on healthy and clinical populations by providing data in natural settings outside of the laboratory. We designed a low-cost, instrumented insole with 8 pneumatic bladders to measure localized plantar pressure information. We collected gait data during treadmill walking at 1.0 m/s and 1.5 m/s and for sit-to-stand and stand-tosit tasks for 10 subjects. We estimated a common representation of ground kinetics (3-component force vector, 2-component center of pressure position vector, and a single-component torque vector) from the insole data. We trained an intertask neural network for each component of the kinetic data. For the walking tasks at 1.0 m/s and 1.5 m/s, the normalized root mean square error was between 3.1% and 12.9% and for the sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks, the normalized root mean square error was between 3.3% and 21.3% Our findings suggest that the proposed low-cost, instrumented insoles could provide useful data about movement kinetics during real-world activities.

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Laura A. Frey-Law, Andrea Laake, Keith G. Avin, Jesse Heitsman, Tim Marler and Karim Abdel-Malek

Recognizing the importance of both the torque-angle and torque-velocity relations, three-dimensional (3D) human strength capabilities (i.e., peak torque as a function of both joint angle and movement velocity) have been increasingly reported. It is not clear, however, the degree to which these surfaces vary between joints, particularly between joints with similar biomechanical configurations. Thus, our goal was to compare 3D strength surfaces between the muscles about the elbow and knee hinge joints in men and women. Peak isometric and isokinetic strength was assessed in 54 participants (30 men) using the Biodex System 3 isokinetic dynamometer. Normalized peak torque surfaces varied significantly between flexion and extension (within each joint) and between joints; however, the normalized 3D torque surfaces did not differ between men and women. These findings suggest the underlying joint biomechanics are the primary influences on these strength surface profiles. Therefore, in applications such as digital human modeling, torque-velocity-angle relationships for each joint and torque direction must be uniquely represented to most accurately estimate human strength capability.

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Cameron O’Beirne, Dawne Larkin and Tim Cable

Generally, children with coordination problems lack fitness and muscular strength. This study was designed to identify whether these children differed from age-matched controls on measures of anaerobic performance. Twenty-four boys who were poorly coordinated, from three age groups, 7, 8, and 9 years, were compared to 24 coordinated controls (N = 48). The McCarron (1982) Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) was used to confirm levels of coordination. Anaerobic performance was estimated with the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) and a 50-m run. The poorly coordinated group’s performance on the WAnT was significantly lower than the performance of the controls for measures of peak power normalized for body weight, absolute and normalized mean power, and the fatigue index. The subjects who were poorly coordinated were also significantly slower performing the 50-m sprint. There was a significant relationship between power measured on the WAnT and coordination measured by the MAND gross motor score. For this population, coordination problems were considered among the factors that may interfere with the measurement of anaerobic performance.

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Jason C. Gillette, Catherine A. Stevermer, Stacey A. Meardon, Timothy R. Derrick and Charles V. Schwab

Farm youth commonly perform animal care tasks such as feeding and watering. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of age, bucket size, loading symmetry, and amount of load on upper body moments during carrying tasks. Fifty-four male and female participants in four age groups (8–10 years, 12–14 years, 15–17 years, and adults, 20–26 years) participated in the study. Conditions included combinations of large or small bucket sizes, unilateral or bilateral loading, and load levels of 10% or 20% of body weight (BW). During bucket carrying, elbow flexion, shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction, shoulder external rotation, L5/S1 extension, L5/S1 lateral bending, and L5/S1 axial rotation moments were estimated using video data. The 8–10 year-old group did not display higher proportional joint moments as compared with adults. Decreasing the load from 20% BW to 10% BW significantly decreased maximum normalized elbow flexion, shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction, shoulder external rotation, L5/S1 lateral bending, and L5/S1 axial rotation moments. Carrying the load bilaterally instead of unilaterally also significantly reduced these six maximum normalized joint moments. In addition, modifying the carrying task by using smaller one-gallon buckets produced significant reductions in maximum L5/S1 lateral bending moments.

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Rodrigo de Marche Baldon, Daniel Ferreira Moreira Lobato, Lívia Pinheiro Carvalho, Paloma Yan Lam Wun, Cátia Valéria Presotti and Fábio Viadanna Serrão


Recently, attention in sports has been given to eccentric hip-muscle function, both in preventing musculoskeletal injuries and improving performance.


To determine the key isokinetic variables of eccentric hip torque that predict the functional performance of women in the single-leg triple long jump (TLJ) and the timed 6-m single-leg hop (TH).


Within-subject correlational study.


Musculoskeletal laboratory.


32 healthy women age 18–25 y.


The participants performed 2 sets of 5 eccentric hip-abductor/adductor and lateral/medial-rotator isokinetic contractions (30°/s) and 3 attempts in the TLJ and TH.

Main Outcome Measurements:

The independent variables were the eccentric hip-abductor and –adductor and medial- and lateral-rotator isokinetic peak torque, normalized according to body mass (Nm/kg). The dependent variables were the longest distance achieved in the TLJ normalized according to body height and the shortest time spent during the execution of the TH.


The forward-stepwise-regression analysis showed that the combination of the eccentric hip lateral-rotator and -abductor isokinetic peak torque provided the most efficient estimate of both functional tests, explaining 65% of the TLJ variance (P < .00l) and 55% of the TH variance (P < .001).


Higher values for eccentric hip lateral-rotator and hip-abductor torques reflected better performance. Thus, the eccentric action of these muscles should be considered in the development of physical training programs that aim to increase functional performance.

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Alison Schinkel-Ivy, Timothy A. Burkhart and David M. Andrews

To date, there has not been a direct examination of the effect that tissue composition (lean mass/muscle, fat mass, bone mineral content) differences between males and females has on how the tibia responds to impacts similar to those seen during running. To evaluate this, controlled heel impacts were imparted to 36 participants (6 M and 6 F in each of low, medium and high percent body fat [BF] groups) using a human pendulum. A skin-mounted accelerometer medial to the tibial tuberosity was used to determine the tibial response parameters (peak acceleration, acceleration slope and time to peak acceleration). There were no consistent effects of BF or specific tissue masses on the un-normalized tibial response parameters. However, females experienced 25% greater peak acceleration than males. When normalized to lean mass, wobbling mass, and bone mineral content, females experienced 50%, 62% and 70% greater peak acceleration, respectively, per gram of tissue than males. Higher magnitudes of lean mass and bone mass significantly contributed to decreased acceleration responses in general.

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Federico Quinzi, Valentina Camomilla, Alberto Di Mario, Francesco Felici and Paola Sbriccoli


Training in martial arts is commonly performed by repeating a technical action continuously for a given number of times. This study aimed to investigate if the repetition of the task alters the proper technical execution, limiting the training efficacy for the technical evaluation during competition. This aim was pursued analyzing lower-limb kinematics and muscle activation during repeated roundhouse kicks.


Six junior karate practitioners performed continuously 20 repetitions of the kick. Hip and knee kinematics and sEMG of vastus lateralis, biceps (BF), and rectus femoris were recorded. For each repetition, hip abduction–adduction and flexion–extension and knee flexion–extension peak angular displacements and velocities, agonist and antagonist muscle activation were computed. Moreover, to monitor for the presence of myoelectric fatigue, if any, the median frequency of the sEMG was computed. All variables were normalized with respect to their individual maximum observed during the sequence of kicks. Linear regressions were fitted to each normalized parameter to test its relationship with the repetition number.


Linear-regression analysis showed that, during the sequence, the athletes modified their technique: Knee flexion, BF median frequency, hip abduction, knee-extension angular velocity, and BF antagonist activation significantly decreased. Conversely, hip flexion increased significantly.


Since karate combat competitions require proper technical execution, training protocols combining severe fatigue and technical actions should be carefully proposed because of technique adaptations. Moreover, trainers and karate masters should consider including specific strength exercises for the BF and more generally for knee flexors.