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Emma Kavanagh, Chelsea Litchfield and Jaquelyn Osborne

adopted in order to normalize and/or trivialize gender-based discrimination ( Lockyer & Savigny, 2019 ). Often the violence targeting the women athletes online was subtle and hidden through humor, therefore reducing its likelihood to be recognized as violent content. As a result, these interactions often

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Nicholas Burton and Cheri Bradish

represents an important exertion of influence and control and serves to facilitate the normalization and legitimation of ideas, concepts, or practices ( Weedon, 1987 ). This discursive power can further be conceptualized through the lens of soft power ( Nye, 1990 ), which refers to one’s ability “to

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Orland Hoeber, Ryan Snelgrove, Larena Hoeber and Laura Wood

electronic formats, the consistency of the data, and the need for data format normalization. In some cases, the data source may be readily available (e.g., Twitter, Google News advanced search); in other cases, converting the data into a format that can be readily analyzed may be challenging and time

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Hans C. Schmidt

considerable attention for his affinity for golf ( Shipnuck, 2017 ). Indeed, such connections between prominent political leaders and sports are so common that, as Green and Hartmann ( 2012 ) wrote, they have become “so deeply normalized that we don’t even notice” (par. 5). Clearly, the connection between

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Jimmy Sanderson, Matthew Zimmerman, Sarah Stokowski and Alison Fridley

. 166) and normalizes toxic behavior such as demeaning and belittling those who are perceived to deviate from social norms and ideals ( Litchfield et al., 2018 ). Some scholars suggest that the proliferation of vitriol published online has become a major social problem ( Kavanagh et al., 2016

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Spencer Riehl, Ryan Snelgrove and Jonathon Edwards

prominent athletes with reference to attributes that are to be normalized. For example, the tradition of Michigan University athletics continues in part through the “Michigan Man” concept, which emphasizes a particular way of acting and competing ( Bacon, 2015 ). The last mechanism that maintains

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Julie Minikel-Lacocque

.1177/1012690207078070 Travers , A. ( 2008 ). The sport nexus and gender injustice . Studies in Social Justice, 2 ( 1 ), 79 – 101 . doi: 10.26522/ssj.v2i1.969 Travers , A. ( 2014 ). Transformative gender justice as a framework for normalizing gender variance among children and youth . In E.J. Meyer & A. Pullen

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Khirey B. Walker, Chad S. Seifried and Brian P. Soebbing

responsibility, governing financial aids to athletes, recruiting, and implementation ( Edleman, 2014 ). The Sanity Code was normalized between 1948 and 1950, but several schools (e.g., Boston College, Citadel, Maryland, Villanova, Virginia, Virginia Tech, and Virginia Military Institute) were found in violation

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Chen Chen and Daniel S. Mason

claims to the land have been denied through narratives of progress and/or racial cultural superiority ( Smith, 2012 ; Trask, 1999 ). This brings up the last pillar of settler colonialism: Through the elimination of Indigenous peoples, settlers attempt to normalize their presence on the land ( Wolfe

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Jessica Love and Lindsey Conlin Maxwell

idea of “getting your body back” normalized women’s bodily obligation ( Dworkin & Wachs, 2004 ). Dworkin and Messner’s ( 1999 ) research showed that fitness campaigns have sold anxieties about health and fitness to women by commodifying ideologies of feminist empowerment. These anxieties heighten for