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Nicholas Burton and Cheri Bradish

represents an important exertion of influence and control and serves to facilitate the normalization and legitimation of ideas, concepts, or practices ( Weedon, 1987 ). This discursive power can further be conceptualized through the lens of soft power ( Nye, 1990 ), which refers to one’s ability “to

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Jimmy Sanderson, Matthew Zimmerman, Sarah Stokowski and Alison Fridley

. 166) and normalizes toxic behavior such as demeaning and belittling those who are perceived to deviate from social norms and ideals ( Litchfield et al., 2018 ). Some scholars suggest that the proliferation of vitriol published online has become a major social problem ( Kavanagh et al., 2016

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Emily Stadder and Michael L. Naraine

avenues are closely connected with sport, as marketers seek the association with sport to increase the normalization and legitimacy of gambling ( Gainsbury et al., 2016 ). Through television, there are multiple options for gambling operators to promote their products. Of course, there is the use of

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Hans C. Schmidt

considerable attention for his affinity for golf ( Shipnuck, 2017 ). Indeed, such connections between prominent political leaders and sports are so common that, as Green and Hartmann ( 2012 ) wrote, they have become “so deeply normalized that we don’t even notice” (par. 5). Clearly, the connection between

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Emma Kavanagh, Chelsea Litchfield and Jaquelyn Osborne

adopted in order to normalize and/or trivialize gender-based discrimination ( Lockyer & Savigny, 2019 ). Often the violence targeting the women athletes online was subtle and hidden through humor, therefore reducing its likelihood to be recognized as violent content. As a result, these interactions often

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Orland Hoeber, Ryan Snelgrove, Larena Hoeber and Laura Wood

electronic formats, the consistency of the data, and the need for data format normalization. In some cases, the data source may be readily available (e.g., Twitter, Google News advanced search); in other cases, converting the data into a format that can be readily analyzed may be challenging and time

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Khirey B. Walker, Chad S. Seifried and Brian P. Soebbing

responsibility, governing financial aids to athletes, recruiting, and implementation ( Edleman, 2014 ). The Sanity Code was normalized between 1948 and 1950, but several schools (e.g., Boston College, Citadel, Maryland, Villanova, Virginia, Virginia Tech, and Virginia Military Institute) were found in violation

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Timothy W. Cacciatore, Patrick M. Johnson and Rajal G. Cohen

throughout the weight shift. Together, these findings suggest that Alexander teachers were solving the movement challenge of smoothly rising from a chair at different speeds by adaptive use of their postural system. Figure 8 —Normalized hip torque during the 1-s chair rise in Alexander teachers and controls

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Joris Drayer, Brendan Dwyer and Stephen L. Shapiro

entertainment aspects of the activity. However, as sports betting becomes normalized across the country, it may become more socially acceptable to promote the financial dimensions as well. However, given the presence of cognitive distortions, there is also evidence that some of these players may be at risk for

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Julie Minikel-Lacocque

. doi:10.26522/ssj.v2i1.969 10.26522/ssj.v2i1.969 Travers , A. ( 2014 ). Transformative gender justice as a framework for normalizing gender variance among children and youth . In E.J. Meyer & A. Pullen Sansfacon (Eds.), Supporting transgender and gender creative youth (pp.  54 – 68 ). New