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Sergio Estrada-Tenorio, José A. Julián, Alberto Aibar, José Martín-Albo and Javier Zaragoza

in both genders. 24 Using objective measurement, results showed a long-term positive impact of MVPA on academic attainment during adolescence, especially in girls who met MVPA recommendations. 14 However, other studies did not find any significant relationship between adolescents’ PA and academic

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Liane S. Lewis, James Hernon, Allan Clark and John M. Saxton

, 2016. Janz , K.F. ( 2006 ). Physical activity in epidemiology: moving from questionnaire to objective measurement . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40 ( 3 ), 191 – 192 . PubMed doi:10.1136/bjsm.2005.023036 10.1136/bjsm.2005.023036 Kim , Y. , Beets , M. , & Welk , G. ( 2012

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Shauna Solomon-Krakus, Catherine M. Sabiston, Jennifer Brunet, Andree L. Castonguay and Mélanie Henderson

levels of MVPA during adolescence is important. Objective measurements of body size ( 2 , 21 , 23 , 31 ) and subjective perceptions of body size ( 15 , 28 , 32 , 33 ) have been consistent targets in studies exploring barriers to physical activity. For example, studies have found that objectively

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Orlagh Farmer, Donna Duffy, Kevin Cahill, Diarmuid Lester, Sarahjane Belton and Wesley O’Brien

their associated protocols have established validity and reliability in children, and are designed to give an objective measurement of gross motor skill proficiency. The four locomotor skills (run, skip, vertical jump, and balance) and three object-control skills (stationary bounce, kick, and catch

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Petter Fagerberg

amount of exercise (predefined and controlled amount of exercise and self-reports); objective measurements of body composition and FFM (e.g., dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DEXA] hydrostatic weighing, magnetic resonance imaging, skinfolds, or four-compartment model); and outcomes showing effects on

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Andrew F. Clark, Joannah Campbell, Patricia Tucker, Piotr Wilk and Jason A. Gilliland

levels of PA. Limitations There are a few key limitations in this study. First, usage data were self-reported by participants. This study attempted to collect objective measurements of usage, but the 3 different service providers with unique registration software, combined with part-time staff who change

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John M. Schuna Jr., Daniel S. Hsia, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Neil M. Johannsen

.1186/1479-5868-9-128 23101767 9. Ryan CG , Grant PM , Dall PM , Granat MH . Sitting patterns at work: objective measurement of adherence to current recommendations . Ergonomics . 2011 ; 54 ( 6 ): 531 – 538 . doi:10.1080/00140139.2011.570458 10.1080/00140139.2011.570458 10. Bureau of Labor Statistics . American

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Rajni Rai, Michelle I. Jongenelis, Ben Jackson, Robert U. Newton and Simone Pettigrew

. ( 2012 ). Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study . Age and Ageing, 42 ( 2 ), 222 – 229 . PubMed ID: 23117467 doi:10.1093/ageing/afs160 10.1093/ageing/afs160 Arnardottir , N

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Wuber J.S. Soares, Alexandre D. Lopes, Eduardo Nogueira, Victor Candido, Suzana A. de Moraes and Monica R. Perracini

that we selected only prospective studies with a specific and objective measurement of PA. Although a large number of participants were included in our meta-analysis, a small number of studies were included. In interpreting the results, several limitations of this meta-analysis should also be

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Antje Hill, Linda Schücker, Norbert Hagemann and Bernd Strauß

the participants and, thus, assumed to be independent of their motivation ( Schücker et al., 2009 , 2013 ), it can be regarded as an objective measurement. Those studies that highlight advantages of an internal focus of attention in endurance sports mention its importance regarding active self