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Catherine Mason and Matt Greig

riding disciplines. 4 Increased anterior rotation of the upper body relative to the pelvis has been observed as trotting speed increases, 19 with movements of the trunk and head considered pivotal to riding effectiveness 17 and with additional work at the reins to control the horse. At sitting trot

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Marcus J. Brown, Laura A. Hutchinson, Michael J. Rainbow, Kevin J. Deluzio and Alan R. De Asha

filtered using a fourth order Butterworth filter with a 6 Hz cut-off, and a 7 segment (pelvis, thighs, shanks and feet) model was constructed. The pelvis segment’s center of mass (COM) position was established 6 and then COM velocity was calculated as the first derivative of COM position. Walking

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Thomas G. Almonroeder, Emily Watkins and Tricia Widenhoefer

clusters were used to track the thigh, shank, and foot segments during the movement trials. The pelvis was tracked by the markers placed on the posterior superior iliac spines and on the iliac crests. With the markers in place, a standing calibration trial was captured. The 3-dimensional positions of the

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Caterina Pesce, Ilaria Masci, Rosalba Marchetti, Giuseppe Vannozzi and Mirko Schmidt

association was inverse, because the lower the aP ML , the better the running performance. As regards throwing, two parameters were directly and inversely associated with perceived competence, respectively: range of motion of yaw calculated during the cocking phase (ROM Yaw ) and the maximum pelvis vertical

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Gustavo Ramos Dalla Bernardina, Tony Monnet, Heber Teixeira Pinto, Ricardo Machado Leite de Barros, Pietro Cerveri and Amanda Piaia Silvatti

-selected speed. Four markers, located at the anterior and posterior superior iliac spines, accounted for pelvis kinematics. For both lower limbs, 3 markers, placed at femur greater trochanter, femur lateral epicondyle, and fibula lateral malleolus, described the flexion–extension angle of the knee. For the

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Julia Freedman Silvernail, Richard E.A. van Emmerik, Katherine Boyer, Michael A. Busa and Joseph Hamill

JF , Van Emmerik RE , Hamill J . Low back pain status affects pelvis–trunk coordination and variability during walking and running . Clin Biomech . 2011 ; 26 ( 6 ): 572 – 578 . doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2010.11.012 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2010.11.012 4. Needham R , Naemi R , Chockalingam

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TaeYeong Kim, JaeHyuk Lee, SeJun Oh, Seungmin Kim and BumChul Yoon

, symmetrically rhythmic, and transferred from the back to the rider’s pelvis. The movement practice of a rider on horseback is associated with greater improvements in muscle strength 8 and activation, 9 and also perceived mental and emotional status. 10 However, the effects of horseback riding exercise are

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Jonathan Sinclair and Paul J. Taylor

define the pelvis segment further, markers were positioned onto the anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) and posterior superior iliac spines (PSIS). Carbon fiber tracking clusters were positioned onto the shank and thigh segments. The foot was tracked using the first metatarsal, fifth metatarsal, and

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Hardeep Singh, Mark Lee, Matthew J. Solomito, Christian Merrill and Carl Nissen

to maximum external rotation, ball release, and then ends at maximum internal rotation. GH indicates glenohumeral. The trunk was defined using the Vicon Plug-in Gait marker configuration, which utilizes 4 markers to construct the trunk segment, as described by Solomito et al. 18 The pelvis was

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Anh-Dung Nguyen, Jeffrey B. Taylor, Taylor G. Wimbish, Jennifer L. Keith and Kevin R. Ford

task trials, particularly the position of the trunk and pelvis. During a DVJ, the body’s COM is relatively confined in the frontal plane considering the large base of support during a double-leg landing task. This is in contrast to a small, single-limb base of support during an SLL task, which would