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Rebecca Reynolds, Santhya and David Menzies

from representative agencies come together to plan, coordinate, and advocate change. 3 Physical activity alliances are important aspects of physical activity public health, 4 but there are not many in existence globally. One ongoing example is the National Coalition for Promoting Physical Activity in

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Rute Santos, Maria Paula Santos, José Carlos Ribeiro and Jorge Mota

Background:

The aims of this study were to describe physical activity (PA) prevalence and compare it with other countries and to investigate possible associations between PA and other lifestyle behaviors in Azorean adults.

Methods:

9991 adults (5723 women), aged 37.8 ± 9.5 years, of the 2004 Azorean Physical Activity and Health Study. IPAQ assessed PA. All other lifestyle behaviors (age, gender, education level, income, employment, marital status, number of children, meal frequency, sleep time, sitting time, body mass index and alcohol and tobacco consumptions) were also self-reported.

Results:

57.1% of the participants met current PA recommendations and 32.2% were categorized as Health Enhancing PA (HEPA). Women were less likely to achieve PA recommendations, as well as the HEPA level. In both genders, higher education level, employment status, higher income, and sitting for more than 3h/day were negative predictors of HEPA; and, having at least 5 meals/day was positive predictor for the same PA level.

Conclusions:

There is a significant proportion of Azoreans, particularly women, that does not do enough PA. Targeted programs for Azoreans aimed to increase PA levels should pay special attention on women, and consider a multifactorial approach, once several lifestyle behaviors seem to interact with PA levels, in this population.

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Christopher J. Armitage and Christine A. Sprigg

There is a dearth of research examining physical activity in children aged 6–10 years with low socioeconomic status, despite the fact there is good reason to suspect this is a critical period when physical activity habits are created. Physical activity and theory of planned behavior variables were measured at three time points, and children (N = 77) randomized to the experimental condition were additionally asked to form an implementation intention. Intention was a potent mediator of the past behavior–future behavior relationship and the implementation intention intervention significantly increased physical activity compared with the control condition. The findings suggest that physical activity can be increased in children aged 6–10 years with low socioeconomic status and that implementation intentions might enhance the effectiveness of children’s physical activity programs.

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Kelly Birch, Merritt ten Hope, Michael Malek-Ahmadi, Kathy O’Connor, Sharon Schofield, David Coon and Walter Nieri

Previous research has found that increased physical activity may provide a protective effect on depression status; however, these studies do not account for cognitive function. This study’s aim was to determine whether cognitive function mediates the association between physical activity depression status in older adults. Data from 501 older adults were used for this analysis. Physical activity had a significant protective effect on depression (OR = 0.761, 95% CI [0.65, 0.89], p = .001). Adjusted analysis yielded an attenuated association (OR = 0.81, 95% CI [0.69, 0.95], p = .01) with a significant interaction for physical activity and cognitive function (OR = 0.991, 95% CI [0.985, 0.997], p = .005). MoCA performance also had a significant mediating effect on the relationship between physical activity and depression status (p = .04). These findings suggest that cognitive function is associated with, and does mediate, the relationship between physical activity and depression status.

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James Curtis, Philip White and Barry McPherson

This study reports on age-group differences in leisure-time sport and physical activity involvement among a large sample of Canadians interviewed at 2 points during the 1980s. Comparisons are made for 5 age cohorts, for men and women, and without and with multivariate controls. The results contradict the usual finding of an inverse relationship between age and level of physical activity. On measures of (a) activity necessary to produce health benefits and (b) energy expenditure. Canadians over 65 were as active as, or more active than, their younger counterparts, and their activities did not decline over the 7 years between interviews. The extent of change varied by age and across women and men. Among women, increases in involvement were greatest in the middle-aged. Among men, the greatest increase was in the oldest age groups. For both genders, the youngest age cohort showed the smallest change over time, and there was evidence of slight declines in activity levels among young men.

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Andrew D. Eberline, Sookhenlall Padaruth and Thomas J. Templin

Service-learning has become a popular pedagogical tool to promote academic and civic learning. One form of service-learning provides physical activity for underrepresented community groups, including children with disabilities. Using experiential learning theory, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to evaluate college students’ experiences in a physical activity-based service learning program for children with disabilities. Through convenience sampling, 97 program participants (82 female, 15 male), most of whom were White (N = 85), were recruited for participation. Data included a pre- and postsurvey of civic learning, participant interviews, reflective journaling, and program observations. Qualitative data were analyzed using constant comparison and inductive analysis, and quantitative data were analyzed using Mixed ANOVAs. Results revealed that the program resulted in enhanced civic and academic learning. Themes included making a difference, academic and career connections, emotional and personal growth, and program reflection. Implications of the study and future directions for research are discussed.

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Gislaine Cristina Vagetti, Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho, Natália Boneti Moreira, Valdomiro de Oliveira, Oldemar Mazzardo and Wagner de Campos

This study examined whether the weekly volume and frequency of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and light walking (LW) were associated with quality of life (QOL) domains of 1,806 older women from Brazil. The WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD instruments were used to measure QOL, while the weekly volume and frequency of MVPA and LW were assessed by IPAQ. An ordinal logistic regression was used as a measure of association. The weekly volumes of MVPA and LW were associated with several domains of QOL. Higher frequency of MVPA was associated with better scores in 10 QOL domains. The weekly frequency of LW, in turn, was associated with all QOL domains. In conclusion, promoting active transport and encouraging physical activity in older adults, for at least 150 min and distributed several days per week, help to increase QOL.

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Hannah M. Badland and Grant M. Schofield

Background:

Leisure time physical activities have been a priority in recent years for many health practitioners, with transport-related physical activity (TPA) largely ignored. The urban environment has altered in the last few decades, increasing the reliance on automobiles. Simultaneously we have seen increases in obesity and other non-communicable diseases related to sedentary lifestyles.

Methods:

Information was sourced from major health databases. The remainder of the literature was directed from citations in articles accessed from the initial search.

Results:

Clear health benefits result from regular TPA engagement, with opportunities closely linked to accessible urban design infrastructure. Much of the existing evidence, however, has been extracted from cross-sectional research, rather than interventions. As such, drawing causal relationships is not yet possible.

Conclusions:

Existing evidence necessitates TPA research and promotion should be public health and urban design priorities. Collaborative research needs to incorporate prospective study designs to understand TPA behavior.

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Sara Wilcox, Abby C. King, Glenn S. Brassington and David K. Ahn

Physical activity interventions are most effective when they are tailored to individual preferences. This study examined preferences for exercising on one’s own with some instruction vs. in a class in 1,820 middle-aged and 1,485 older adults. Overall, 69% of middle-aged and 67% of older adults preferred to exercise on their own with some instruction rather than in an exercise class. The study identified subgroups—5 of middle-aged and 6 of older adults—whose preferences for exercising on their own with some instruction ranged from 33–85%. Less educated women younger than 56, healthy women 65–71, and older men reporting higher stress levels were most likely to prefer classes. All other men and most women preferred exercising on their own. The identification of these subgroups enables us to tailor exercise recommendations to the preferences of middle-aged and older adults, with increased rates of physical activity adoption and maintenance a likely result.

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Elizabeth E. Turner, W. Jack Rejeski and Lawrence R. Brawley

This investigation examined the influence of leadership behavior on exercise- induced feeling states and self-efficacy beliefs following an acute bout of physical activity. Forty-six college-aged women participated in a single session of physical activity that involved either socially enriched or bland social interactions by an activity leader. Participants completed the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI) and self-efficacy measures prior to and 10 min following the experimental treatments. The results revealed that those in the enriched condition reported greater increases in Revitalization. There was a similar trend for the Positive Engagement subscale, and those in the enriched condition reported much larger increases in self-efficacy. There was no evidence that self-efficacy was related to the change seen in EFI responses; however, enjoyment of the instructors’ approach to the class was related to residualized change scores for both Revitalization and Positive Engagement.