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Jiri Mudrak, Pavel Slepicka and Steriani Elavsky

We tested a social cognitive model of physical activity (PA) in the cultural context of the Czech Republic, a postcommunist central European country. In total, 546 older Czech adults (mean age = 68 years, data collected in 2013) completed a battery of questionnaires assessing indicators of PA and related social cognitive constructs, including self-efficacy, social support, and self-regulation strategies. Subsequently, a structural equation model was used to test the relationship between the social cognitive constructs and PA. Our analyses indicated an acceptable fit of the proposed model (CFI = .911; SRMR = .046; RMSEA = .073). Self-regulation was predicted by self-efficacy (β = .67) and social support (β = .23), which predicted PA (β = .45). The model explained 60.4% of the variance in PA self-regulation and 20.5% of the variance in PA participation. The results provide further evidence for the role of self-efficacy and social support in enabling PA in older adults, and suggest that this relationship is partially mediated by self-regulation.

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Helen M. Milne, Karen E. Wallman, Andrew Guilfoyle, Sandy Gordon and Kerry S. Courneya

The study aim was to examine constructs of autonomy support and competence as well as the motivation continuum from the self-determination theory (SDT) as a framework for understanding physical activity (PA) motivation and behavior in breast cancer survivors. Questionnaires assessing demographics, medical factors, PA, motivation continuum, perceived autonomy support, and competence were completed by 558 breast cancer survivors. Results showed that lymphedema (X2 = 7.9, p < .01) and income (X2 = 4.6, p < .05) were associated with meeting PA guidelines. Moreover, survivors meeting PA guidelines reported more identified regulations and intrinsic motivation (p < .01), autonomy support (p < .01), and competence (p < .01). Forced entry hierarchical regression analysis showed that SDT constructs explained 20.2% (p < .01) of the PA variance. Significant independent SDT predictors included identified regulation (ß = .14, p < .05) and competence (ß = .23, p < .01), with autonomy support approaching significance (ß = .9, p = .057). SDT may be a useful model for understanding PA motivation and behavior in breast cancer survivors.

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Vera K. Tsenkova, Chioun Lee and Jennifer Morozink Boylan

of indicators across the life course, consistently predicts higher risk for prediabetes and diabetes. 3 – 9 Therefore, understanding the pathways to diabetes in disadvantaged groups assumes increasing importance. Physical activity is a critical cornerstone of diabetes prevention and management

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Patrick Abi Nader, Evan Hilberg, John M. Schuna, Deborah H. John and Katherine B. Gunter

Few elementary school-aged children (6–11 y old) accumulate the daily recommended levels of physical activity (PA). 1 The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend that children and adolescents aged 6–17 years do at least 60 minutes of mostly moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) daily. 2 The

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Rute Santos, Maria Paula Santos, José Carlos Ribeiro and Jorge Mota

Background:

The aims of this study were to describe physical activity (PA) prevalence and compare it with other countries and to investigate possible associations between PA and other lifestyle behaviors in Azorean adults.

Methods:

9991 adults (5723 women), aged 37.8 ± 9.5 years, of the 2004 Azorean Physical Activity and Health Study. IPAQ assessed PA. All other lifestyle behaviors (age, gender, education level, income, employment, marital status, number of children, meal frequency, sleep time, sitting time, body mass index and alcohol and tobacco consumptions) were also self-reported.

Results:

57.1% of the participants met current PA recommendations and 32.2% were categorized as Health Enhancing PA (HEPA). Women were less likely to achieve PA recommendations, as well as the HEPA level. In both genders, higher education level, employment status, higher income, and sitting for more than 3h/day were negative predictors of HEPA; and, having at least 5 meals/day was positive predictor for the same PA level.

Conclusions:

There is a significant proportion of Azoreans, particularly women, that does not do enough PA. Targeted programs for Azoreans aimed to increase PA levels should pay special attention on women, and consider a multifactorial approach, once several lifestyle behaviors seem to interact with PA levels, in this population.

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Nicolaas P. Pronk

Background:

The contemporary workplace setting is in need of interventions that effectively promote higher levels of occupational and habitual physical activity. It is the purpose of this paper to outline an evidence-based approach to promote physical activity in the business and industry sector in support of a National Physical Activity Plan.

Methods:

Comprehensive literature searches identified systematic reviews, comprehensive reviews, and consensus documents on the impact of physical activity interventions in the business and industry sector. A framework for action and priority recommendations for practice and research were generated.

Key recommendations:

Comprehensive, multicomponent worksite programs that include physical activity components generate significant improvements in health, reduce absenteeism and sick leave, and can generate a positive financial return. Specific evidence-based physical activity interventions are presented. Recommendations for practice include implementing comprehensive, multicomponent programs that make physical activity interventions possible, simple, rewarding and relevant in the context of a social-ecological model. The business and industry sector has significant opportunities to improve physical activity among employees, their dependents, and the community at-large and to reap important benefits related to worker health and business performance.

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Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari, Luis Carlos Oliveira, Timoteo Leandro Araujo, Victor Matsudo, Tiago V. Barreira, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Peter Katzmarzyk

This study aimed to analyze the independent associations of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior, physical activity, and steps/day with body composition variables in Brazilian children. 485 children wore accelerometers for 7 days. Variables included time in sedentary behavior and different physical activity intensities (light, moderate, vigorous, or moderate-to-vigorous) and steps/day. Body fat percentage was measured using a bioelectrical impedance scale, and BMI was calculated. Children spent 55.7% of the awake portion of the day in sedentary behavior, 37.6% in light physical activity, 4.6% in moderate physical activity, and 1.9% in vigorous physical activity. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and steps/day were negatively associated with body composition (BMI and body fat percentage) variables, independent of sex and sedentary behavior. Beta values were higher for vigorous physical activity than moderate physical activity. Vigorous physical activity was negatively associated with BMI (β-.1425) and body fat percentage (β-.3082; p < .0001). In boys, there were significant negative associations between moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and steps/day with body composition, and in girls, there was only a negative association with vigorous physical activity, independent of sedentary behavior. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and steps/day (in boys), but especially vigorous physical activity (in boys and girls), are associated with body composition, independent of sedentary behavior. Sedentary behavior was not related with any of the body composition variables once adjusted for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

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James Curtis, Philip White and Barry McPherson

This study reports on age-group differences in leisure-time sport and physical activity involvement among a large sample of Canadians interviewed at 2 points during the 1980s. Comparisons are made for 5 age cohorts, for men and women, and without and with multivariate controls. The results contradict the usual finding of an inverse relationship between age and level of physical activity. On measures of (a) activity necessary to produce health benefits and (b) energy expenditure. Canadians over 65 were as active as, or more active than, their younger counterparts, and their activities did not decline over the 7 years between interviews. The extent of change varied by age and across women and men. Among women, increases in involvement were greatest in the middle-aged. Among men, the greatest increase was in the oldest age groups. For both genders, the youngest age cohort showed the smallest change over time, and there was evidence of slight declines in activity levels among young men.

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Hannah M. Badland and Grant M. Schofield

Background:

Leisure time physical activities have been a priority in recent years for many health practitioners, with transport-related physical activity (TPA) largely ignored. The urban environment has altered in the last few decades, increasing the reliance on automobiles. Simultaneously we have seen increases in obesity and other non-communicable diseases related to sedentary lifestyles.

Methods:

Information was sourced from major health databases. The remainder of the literature was directed from citations in articles accessed from the initial search.

Results:

Clear health benefits result from regular TPA engagement, with opportunities closely linked to accessible urban design infrastructure. Much of the existing evidence, however, has been extracted from cross-sectional research, rather than interventions. As such, drawing causal relationships is not yet possible.

Conclusions:

Existing evidence necessitates TPA research and promotion should be public health and urban design priorities. Collaborative research needs to incorporate prospective study designs to understand TPA behavior.

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Andrew D. Eberline, Sookhenlall Padaruth and Thomas J. Templin

Service-learning has become a popular pedagogical tool to promote academic and civic learning. One form of service-learning provides physical activity for underrepresented community groups, including children with disabilities. Using experiential learning theory, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to evaluate college students’ experiences in a physical activity-based service learning program for children with disabilities. Through convenience sampling, 97 program participants (82 female, 15 male), most of whom were White (N = 85), were recruited for participation. Data included a pre- and postsurvey of civic learning, participant interviews, reflective journaling, and program observations. Qualitative data were analyzed using constant comparison and inductive analysis, and quantitative data were analyzed using Mixed ANOVAs. Results revealed that the program resulted in enhanced civic and academic learning. Themes included making a difference, academic and career connections, emotional and personal growth, and program reflection. Implications of the study and future directions for research are discussed.