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Corjena Cheung, Jean F. Wyman and Kay Savik

Yoga is beneficial for osteoarthritis (OA) management in older adults; however, adherence to yoga practice is unknown. The purposes of this secondary analysis were to examine: (1) yoga adherence during the intervention and follow-up periods; (2) the relationship between social cognitive theory (SCT) constructs and adherence; and (3) the impact of adherence on OA-related symptoms in 36 community-dwelling older women with knee OA. SCT was used as a framework to promote adherence to a yoga intervention program that included both group/home-based practices. Adherence to yoga was high during the intervention period but decreased over time. Although SCT was a useful framework for reducing attrition during the intervention, self-efficacy was the only construct that correlated with class attendance. Higher yoga adherence was correlated with improved symptoms, physical function, sleep quality, and quality of life. Yoga adherers were likely to be older, less educated, and had a lower body mass index than nonadherers.

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Alison R. Snyder, Jessica C. Martinez, R. Curtis Bay, John T. Parsons, Eric L. Sauers and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

Context:

Patient-oriented outcome measures such as the Medical Outcomes Short Form (SF-36) and the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) are important tools for determining the impact of events like sport-related injury on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Unfortunately, there are no published studies using these instruments that compare adolescent athletes with their nonathlete peers, making interpretations of these measures in this population difficult.

Objective:

To compare HRQoL in adolescent athletes and nonathletes using 2 common instruments.

Design:

Cross-sectional.

Setting:

7 high schools.

Participants:

219 athletes and 106 nonathletes.

Intervention:

None.

Main Outcome Measures:

The SF-36 and the PODCI were completed in a counterbalanced manner during 1 session. Dependent variables included the 8 subscale and 2 composite scores of the SF-36 and the 5 subscale scores and 1 global score of the PODCI.

Results:

On the SF-36, athletes reported higher scores on the physical function, general health, social functioning, and mental health subscales and the mental composite score and lower scores on the bodily pain subscale than nonathletes. On the PODCI, athletes reported higher scores on the sport and physical function and happiness subscales and lower scores on the pain/comfort subscale.

Conclusions:

Athletes reported higher scores on a number of SF-36 and PODCI subscales related to mental, emotional, and physical well-being than nonathletes. Our findings suggest that athletic involvement may be a benefit to the overall health status of adolescents and imply that athletes may be a distinct adolescent group requiring their own normative values when using the SF-36 and PODCI.

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Dusa Marn-Vukadinovic and Helena Jamnik

Context:

Valid patient-based outcome instruments are necessary for comprehensive patient care that focuses on all aspects of health, from impairments to participation restrictions.

Objective:

To validate the Slovenian translation of Medical Outcome Survey (MOS) Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and to assess relations among various knee measurements, activity tested with Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and health-related quality of life as estimated with SF-36 domains.

Design:

Descriptive validation study.

Setting:

Isokinetic laboratory in outpatient rehabilitation unit.

Participants:

101 subjects after unilateral sport knee injury.

Interventions:

All subjects completed the SF-36 and OKS, and isokinetic knee-muscle strength output at 60°/s was determined in 78 participants. Within a 3-d period, 43 subjects completed the SF-36 and OKS questionnaires again.

Main Outcome Measures:

Reliability testing included internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Correlations between SF-36 subscales and OKS were calculated to assess construct validity, and correlation between SF-36 subscales and muscle strength was calculated to assess concurrent validity.

Results:

Chronbach α was above .78 for all SF-36 subscales. ICCs ranged from .80 to .93. The correlation between OKS and the physical-functioning subscale, showing convergent construct validity, was higher (r = .83, P < .01) than between OKS and mental health (r = .50, P < .01), showing divergent construct validity. Knee-extensor weakness negatively correlated with physical-functioning (r = −.59, P < .01) and social-functioning (r = −.43, P < .01) subscales.

Conclusions:

The Slovenian translation of the SF-36 is a reliable and valuable tool. The relationships between knee-muscle strength and activity and between knee-muscle strength and SF-36 subscales in patients after sport knee injury were established.

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Matthew P. Ford, Laurie A. Malone, Harrison C. Walker, Ildiko Nyikos, Rama Yelisetty and C. Scott Bickel

Background:

UPDRS and PDQ-39 are reliable and valid assessments of quality of life and physical function in persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, these measures were not designed to track day-to-day or week-to-week changes in community activity in persons with PD.

Methods:

Twelve individuals with PD (stage 1 to 3, Hoehn and Yahr) who were active members of a health and wellness facility were recruited for this study. Investigators collected health history information, asked questions about the amount and frequency of weekly exercise, and assessed motor symptoms and ADL skills using the UPDRS, and provided participants with Step Activity Monitor (SAM). SAM data were collected for a continuous 7-day period.

Results:

Participants averaged 8996 steps/day, had an average of 322 minutes of step activity per day, but were inactive (minIA) 77% of their time per day. On the days that participants visited the health and wellness facility they took an average of 802 more steps with 12 minutes more activity per day.

Conclusions:

A SAM can be used to capture activity levels in persons with PD. These pilot data indicate that persons with mild to moderate PD can achieve step activity levels similar to healthy older adults.

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Kristen M. Beavers, Fang-Chi Hsu, Monica C. Serra, Veronica Yank, Marco Pahor and Barbara J. Nicklas

Observational studies show a relationship between elevated serum uric acid (UA) and better physical performance and muscle function. The purpose of this paper was to determine whether regular participation in an exercise intervention, known to improve physical functioning, would result in increased serum UA. For this study, 424 older adults at risk for physical disability were randomized to participate in either a 12-mo moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) or a successful aging (SA) health education intervention. UA was measured at baseline, 6, and 12 mo (n = 368, 341, and 332, respectively). Baseline UA levels were 6.03 ± 1.52 mg/dl and 5.94 ± 1.55 mg/dl in the PA and SA groups, respectively. The adjusted mean UA at month 12 was 4.8% (0.24 mg/dl) higher in the PA compared with the SA group (p = .028). Compared with a health education intervention, a 1-yr PA intervention results in a modest increase in systemic concentration of UA in older adults at risk for mobility disability.

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William R. Sukala, Rachel Page, Chris Lonsdale, Isabelle Lys, David Rowlands, Jeremy Krebs, Murray Leikis and Birinder Singh Cheema

Background:

To evaluate the differential effect of 2, group-based exercise modalities on quality of life (QoL) in indigenous Polynesian peoples with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and visceral obesity.

Methods:

Participants were randomized to resistance training or aerobic training performed 3 times per for 16 weeks. The Short-Form 36 was administered at baseline and post intervention to assess 8 domains and physical and mental component scales (PCS and MCS) of QoL.

Results:

With the exception of Mental Health and MCS, all scores were lower at baseline than general population norms. Significant improvements were documented in several QoL scores in each group post intervention. No group × time interactions were noted. Pooled analyses of the total cohort indicated significantly improved Physical Functioning, Role-Physical, Bodily Pain, General Health, Vitality, Role-Emotional, PCS and MCS. Adaptation ranged from 5%−22%, and demonstrated a moderate-to-large effect (Cohen’s d = 0.64−1.29). All measures of QoL increased to near equivalent, or greater than general norms.

Conclusion:

Exercise, regardless of specific modality, can improve many aspects of QoL in this population. Robust trials are required to investigate factors mediating improvements in QoL, and create greater advocacy for exercise as a QoL intervention in this and other indigenous populations with T2DM.

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Takashi Kamijo and Masami Murakami

Background:

Lifestyle-related diseases among middle-age and elderly people have become serious problems. Underlying causes might be related to the changes in the lifestyle including the absence of regular physical exercise.

Methods:

To clarify the significance of regular physical exercise to prevent lifestyle-related diseases, we studied motor functions and blood chemistry examinations in middle-age and elderly women (over 40 years old) who performed regular physical exercise for 2 years (exercise group) and those who initially did not (control group).

Results:

In study 1, VO2max significantly increased in the exercise group compared with the control group in the under 60 years old groups. In the over 60 years old groups, VO2max, foot balance, and HDL-cholesterol significantly increased. Plasma glucose at 120 minutes after the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-R), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) significantly decreased in the exercise group compared with the control group. In study 2, a 1-year exercise program significantly improved physical functions and biochemical markers in the control group.

Conclusion:

These results suggest that regular physical exercise might help to maintain sound motor functions and decrease insulin resistance and a risk for arteriosclerosis.

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NiCole R. Keith, Daniel O. Clark, Timothy E. Stump, Douglas K. Miller and Christopher M. Callahan

Background:

An accurate physical fitness survey could be useful in research and clinical care.

Purpose:

To estimate the validity and reliability of a Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) survey; an instrument that estimates muscular fitness, flexibility, cardiovascular endurance, BMI, and body composition (BC) in adults ≥ 40 years of age.

Methods:

201 participants completed the SF-36 Physical Function Subscale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Older Adults’ Desire for Physical Competence Scale (Rejeski), the SRFit survey, and the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test. BC, height and weight were measured. SRFit survey items described BC, BMI, and Senior Fitness Test movements. Correlations between the Senior Fitness Test and the SRFit survey assessed concurrent validity. Cronbach’s Alpha measured internal consistency within each SRFit domain. SRFit domain scores were compared with SF-36, IPAQ, and Rejeski survey scores to assess construct validity. Intraclass correlations evaluated test-retest reliability.

Results:

Correlations between SRFit and the Senior Fitness Test domains ranged from 0.35 to 0.79. Cronbach’s Alpha scores were .75 to .85. Correlations between SRFit and other survey scores were –0.23 to 0.72 and in the expected direction. Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.79 to 0.93. All P-values were 0.001.

Conclusion:

Initial evaluation supports the SRFit survey’s validity and reliability.

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Silvia Aranda-García, Albert Busquets, Antoni Planas, Joan A. Prat-Subirana and Rosa M. Angulo-Barroso

Purpose:

Gait speed is related to physical function in older adults. This cross-sectional study examined the best predictors of maximal gait speed (MGS) among physical abilities, and general factors in healthy, rural community-dwelling older adults.

Methods:

MGS, muscle strength, and postural sway were measured in 55 community-dwelling participants (age, 72.1 ± 6.8, range 61–87 years; 72.7% women). Two stepwise regressions were used to find MGS predictors in two models: physical abilities and global.

Results:

Strength of knee extensors with 60° of knee flexion (KStrength60°) and maximal distance in the anterior-posterior direction with eyes closed explained 50.2% of MGS variance (p < .05) in the physical abilities model. KStrength60°, age, and level of physical activity explained 63.9% of MGS variance (p < .05) in the global model.

Conclusions:

Regardless of the model, KStrength60° was the best predictor of MGS in rural female older adults. Future research should examine the generalization of these findings to rural male older adults.

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Kimberlee A. Gretebeck, Kaitlyn Radius, David R. Black, Randall J. Gretebeck, Rosemary Ziemba and Lawrence T. Glickman

Background:

Regular walking improves overall health and functional ability of older adults, yet most are sedentary. Dog ownership/pet responsibility may increase walking in older adults. Goals of this study were to identify factors that influence older adult walking and compare physical activity, functional ability and psychosocial characteristics by dog ownership status.

Methods:

In this cross-sectional study, older adults (65−95 years of age, n = 1091) completed and returned questionnaires via postal mail. Measures included: Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, Physical Functioning Questionnaire and Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire.

Results:

Dog owner/dog walkers (n = 77) reported significantly (P < .05) more total walking, walking frequency, leisure and total physical activity and higher total functional ability than dog owner/nondog walkers (n = 83) and nondog owners (n = 931). Dog owner/nondog walkers reported lower intention and perceived behavioral control and a less positive attitude than dog owner/dog walkers (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Dog owner/dog walkers were significantly different than the nondog walker groups in nearly every study variable. Many dog owners (48.1%) reported walking their dogs regularly and the dog owner/dog walkers participated in nearly 50% more total walking than the 2 nondog walking groups, suggesting that pet obligation may provide a purposeful activity that motivates some older dog owners to walk.