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Matt Greig and Philip Nagy

Context:

Epidemiological studies highlight a prevalence of lumbar vertebrae injuries in cricket fast bowlers, with governing bodies implementing rules to reduce exposure. Analysis typically requires complex and laboratory-based biomechanical analyses, lacking ecological validity. Developments in GPS microtechnologies facilitate on-field measures of mechanical intensity, facilitating screening toward prevention and rehabilitation.

Objective:

To examine the efficacy of using GPS-mounted triaxial accelerometers to quantify accumulated body load and to investigate the effect of GPS-unit placement in relation to epidemiological observations.

Design:

Repeated measures, field-based.

Setting:

Regulation cricket pitch.

Participants:

10 male injury-free participants recruited from a cricket academy (18.1 ± 0.6 y).

Intervention:

Each participant was fitted with 2 GPS units placed at the cervicothoracic and lumbar spines to measure triaxial acceleration (100 Hz). Participants were instructed to deliver a 7-over spell of fast bowling, as dictated by governing-body guidelines.

Main Outcome Measures:

Triaxial total accumulated body and the relative uniaxial contributions were calculated for each over.

Results:

There was no significant main effect for overs bowled, in either total load or the triaxial contributions to total load. This finding suggests no cumulative fatigue effect across the 10-over spell. However, there was a significant main effect for GPS-unit location, with the lumbar unit exposed to significantly greater load than the cervicothoracic unit in each of the triaxial planes.

Conclusions:

There was no evidence to suggest that accumulated load significantly increased as a result of spell duration. In this respect the governing-body guidelines for this age group can be considered safe, or potentially even conservative. However, the observation of higher body load at the lumbar spine than at the cervicothoracic spine supports epidemiological observations of injury incidence. GPS microtechnologies might therefore be considered in screening and monitoring of players toward injury prevention and/or during rehabilitation.

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Amee L. Seitz, Michael Reinold, Robert A. Schneider, Thomas J. Gill and Charles Thigpen

Context:

Differences in 3-dimensional (3D) scapular motion have been reported between healthy baseball position players and healthy nonoverhead athletic controls, as well as players diagnosed with shoulder impingement syndrome. These alterations are theorized to be the result of adaptations due to the demands of repetitive throwing. However, comparisons between the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders are commonly used to infer normal motion.

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to compare 3D scapular kinematics between the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders in asymptomatic professional male baseball pitchers.

Design:

Cross-sectional study.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

45 asymptomatic professional baseball pitchers participating without restrictions during preseason training.

Interventions:

An electromagnetic tracking system was used to assess 3D scapular orientation at rest and during weighted (2.3-kg) shoulder flexion across discrete humeral-flexion angles (rest, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, and maximum).

Main Outcome Measure:

3D scapular upward/downward rotation (UR/DR), anteroposterior (AP) tilt, and internal/external rotation (IR/ER). Separate mixed-model ANOVAs (Side × Angle) for each scapular motion were used to compare the throwing and the nonthrowing shoulder across all angles.

Results:

There were significant side-to-side differences with scapular UR/DR (P < .001), AP tilt (P < .001), and IR/ER (P < .001). The throwing scapula displayed greater mean UR (increase = 3.6°, SE = 0.50) and anterior/posterior tilt (increase = 2.1°, SE = 0.60) and less mean IR (decrease = 2.1°, SE = 0.66) than the nonthrowing shoulder averaged across all arm angles.

Conclusions:

In asymptomatic professional pitchers, the throwing shoulder’s scapular position differs across all arm angles from that of the nonthrowing shoulder, but the motion does not differ. Scapular asymmetry that is consistent throughout arm elevation may be indicative not of pathology but, potentially, of a normal adaptation of the pitching shoulder.

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John Andrew Badagliacco and Andrew Karduna

Baseball pitching is one of the most dynamic biomechanical tasks performed by athletes. At the college and professional level, the shoulder can experience velocities in excess of 7000°/s in internal rotation. 1 Given the repetitive nature of this loading, it is perhaps not surprising that injuries

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Joseph J. Crisco, Nikolas J. Osvalds and Michael J. Rainbow

square retroreflective markers (13 × 13 mm). Testing was held indoors at the Brown University Athletic Center (Providence, RI) over a 2-day session. A portable batting cage was assembled (15.2 × 3.0 × 4.3 m) on the gymnasium floor. A pitching machine (Iron Mike MP5; Master Pitching Machine, Kansas City

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Paul S. Bradley and Jack D. Ade

parallel to the player on the ball.  Push-up pitch Player moves up the pitch to support the play (defensive and middle third of the pitch only).  Run the channel Player runs with or without the ball down to one of the external areas of the pitch.  Run-in behind Player aims to beat the opposition offside

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Anat V. Lubetzky, Bryan D. Hujsak, Gene Fu and Ken Perlin

the pitch, roll, and yaw directions typically required a three-dimensional video motion capture system with high-resolution cameras and multiple infrared markers. Such systems have provided accurate information on head movement patterns in patients with vestibular dysfunction ( Lang et al., 2013

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Gretchen D. Oliver, Jessica K. Washington, Sarah S. Gascon, Hillary A. Plummer, Rafael F. Escamilla and James R. Andrews

is accomplished by the sequential activation of LPHC musculature, 37  thus changes in muscle performance may alter kinematics up the kinetic chain. The current results are similar to previous literature that has examined the effects of baseball pitchers throwing a simulated game 38 – 41 on pitching

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Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Mahyar Salavati, Ali Esteki, Behnam Akhbari, Sohrab Keyhani and Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh

Stroop task. The auditory Stroop task consisted of a series of stimuli consisting of “high” or “low” words spoken in Persian presented with either high-pitched or low-pitched voice, resulting in 2 types of stimuli, that is, congruent stimuli where the word and the vocalization pitch matched and

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Yusuf Köklü, Utku Alemdaroğlu, Hamit Cihan and Del P. Wong

number of different factors which may affect exercise intensity. These factors include the number of players and the pitch size, 5 – 8 the game rules, 9 – 12 coach encouragement, 13 the absence or presence of goalkeepers, 14 , 15 team formation, 16 and training regime. 17 – 19 In addition to these

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Simon A. Feros, Warren B. Young and Brendan J. O’Brien

variety of pace-bowling tests. 3 – 5 However, several inconsistencies appear between tests, ranging from the test environment, pitch and cricket-ball characteristics, implemented warm-ups, test-familiarization procedures, permitted run-up lengths, bowling-spell lengths, delivery sequence, test