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Michael W. Beets, Aaron Beighle, Matteo Bottai, Laura Rooney and Fallon Tilley

Background:

Policies to require afterschool programs (ASPs, 3 PM to 6 PM) to provide children a minimum of 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) exist. With few low-cost, easy-to-use measures of MVPA available to the general public, ASP providers are limited in their ability to track progress toward achieving this policy-goal. Pedometers may fill this gap, yet there are no step-count guidelines for ASPs linked to 30 minutes of MVPA.

Methods:

Steps and accelerometer estimates of MVPA were collected concurrently over multiple days on 245 children (8.2 years, 48% boys, BMI-percentile 68.2) attending 3 community-based ASPs. Random intercept logit models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to identify a threshold of steps that corresponded with attaining 30 minutes of MVPA.

Results:

Children accumulated an average of 2876 steps (standard error [SE] 79) and 16.1 minutes (SE0.5) of MVPA over 111 minutes (SE1.3) during the ASP. A threshold of 4600 steps provided high specificity (0.967) and adequate sensitivity (0.646) for discriminating children who achieved the 30 minutes of MVPA; 93% of the children were correctly classified. The total area under the curve was 0.919. Children accumulating 4600 steps were 25times more likely to accumulate 30 minutes of MVPA.

Conclusions:

This step threshold will provide ASP leaders with an objective, low-cost, easy-to-use tool to monitor progress toward policy-related goals.

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Jennifer G. Walker, Kelly R. Evenson, William J. Davis, Philip Bors and Daniel A. Rodríguez

Background:

This comparative case study investigates 2 successful community trail initiatives, using the Active Living By Design (ALBD) Community Action Model as an analytical framework. The model includes 5 strategies: preparation, promotion, programs, policy, and physical projects.

Methods:

Key stakeholders at 2 sites participated in in-depth interviews (N = 14). Data were analyzed for content using Atlas Ti and grouped according to the 5 strategies.

Results:

Preparation: Securing trail resources was challenging, but shared responsibilities facilitated trail development. Promotions: The initiatives demonstrated minimal physical activity encouragement strategies. Programs: Community stakeholders did not coordinate programmatic opportunities for routine physical activity. Policy: Trails’ inclusion in regional greenway master plans contributed to trail funding and development. Policies that were formally institutionalized and enforced led to more consistent trail construction and safer conditions for users. Physical Projects: Consistent standards for wayfinding signage and design safety features enhanced trail usability and safety.

Conclusions:

Communities with different levels of government support contributed unique lessons to inform best practices of trail initiatives. This study revealed a disparity between trail development and use-encouragement strategies, which may limit trails’ impact on physical activity. The ALBD Community Action Model provided a viable framework to structure cross-disciplinary community trail initiatives.

Open access

Silvia A. González, Maria A Castiblanco, Luis F. Arias-Gómez, Andrea Martinez-Ospina, Daniel D. Cohen, Gustavo A. Holguin, Adriana Almanza, Diana Marina Camargo Lemos, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Iván D. Escobar, Johnattan García, Rocio Gámez, Mauricio Garzon, Yaneth Herazo Beltrán, Hernan Hurtado, Oscar Lozano, Diana C. Páez, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Nubia Ruiz, Gustavo Tovar and Olga L. Sarmiento

Background:

Physical activity (PA) is vital to the holistic development of young people. Regular participation in PA is associated with substantial benefits for health, cognitive function, and social inclusion. Recognizing the potential of PA in the context of the current peace process in Colombia, the purpose of this article is to present the methodology and results of Colombia’s second Report Card on PA for children and youth.

Methods:

A group of experts on PA graded 14 PA indicators based on data from national surveys and policy documents.

Results:

National and departmental policy indicators received a grade of B, while organized sport participation, overweight, obesity, community influence, and nongovernment initiatives indicators received a grade of C. Overall PA levels, active transportation, sedentary behaviors, and school influence received a grade of D. Active play, low physical fitness, and family influence received an Incomplete grade.

Conclusions:

PA levels are low and sedentary behaviors are high in Colombian children and youth, with notable geographic differences. A broad policy framework translated into specific actions could provide unique opportunities to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice, and contribute to social integration goals in a postconflict setting.

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Michael William Beets, Jennifer Huberty and Aaron Beighle

Background:

National and state organizations have called upon afterschool programs (3–6 PM, ASP) to promote physical activity (PA). Few strategies exist that ASPs can use to increase the PA of children enrolled. This study evaluated a policy-level intervention (Movin’ Afterschool, MAS) designed to increase PA through staff implemented policy-level changes and ongoing technical support.

Methods:

Twelve preexisting community-based ASPs serving 580 children (5–12 yrs, 57% girls) were invited to take part in MAS. Evaluation of children’s PA, staff behaviors (engaged or promote PA, other ASP tasks, general supervising), and environmental features (equipment, organized PA) at baseline (Fall 2010) and postassessment (Spring 2011) were collected using SOPLAY (System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth) for boys and girls, separately. Random effects models evaluated changes in PA categories (sedentary, walking, vigorous).

Results:

The percentage of boys and girls sedentary decreased by 11.8% and 11.4%, respectively. Girls walking increased by 6.9% while boys vigorous PA increased by 6.5%. Greater increases in vigorous activity were observed as postassessment in organized activities for boys and during indoor activities for girls.

Conclusions:

Findings indicate a policy-level approach targeting staff training and ongoing technical support can produce notable increases in PA within the ASP setting.

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Sharon E. Taverno Ross

studies and three protocol studies that targeted Latino preschool children and included a parent intervention component and physical activity as outcome variables. The paper ends with an interpretation of the findings of these studies, as well as critical questions for research and policy. A Growing

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Karin A. Pfeiffer and Michael J. Wierenga

not meet U.S. national PA recommendations ( Troiano et al., 2008 ). Along with the 2008 PA Guidelines, the National Plan for Physical Activity was introduced in the United States. The National Plan is a set of policies, programs, and initiatives designed to increase PA in all segments of the U

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Brian A. Eiler, Rosemary Al-Kire, Patrick C. Doyle and Heidi A. Wayment

(abuser and mandatory reporter), a systems perspective (c.f., Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998 ; Eiler, Kallen, & Richardson, 2017 ) is needed to inform new policies, procedures, and plans. Unfortunately, current procedures have not been effective. Sports organizations often minimize and trivialize victims

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Mark Urtel, Sara F. Michaliszyn and Craig Stiemsma

few. These different academic locations may further influence a curriculum, as well as the overall and individual internship requirements by way of, for example, college/school-specific budget models, faculty workload policies, and curriculum guidelines. Therefore, it is not surprising that the

Open access

John J. Reilly, Avril Johnstone, Geraldine McNeill and Adrienne R. Hughes

Background:

The 2016 Active Healthy Kids Scotland Report Card aims to improve surveillance of physical activity (PA), facilitate international comparisons, and encourage evidence-informed PA and health policy.

Methods:

Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card methodology was used: a search for data on child and adolescent PA and health published after the 2013 Scottish Report Card was carried out. Data sources were considered for grading if based on representative samples with prevalence estimates made using methods with low bias. Ten health behaviors/outcomes were graded on an A to F scale based on quintiles (prevalence meeting recommendations ≥80% graded A down to <20% graded F).

Results:

Three of the seven Health Behaviors and Outcomes received F or F- grades: Overall PA, Sedentary Behavior, and Obesity. Active and Outdoor Play and Organized Sport Participation could not be graded. Active Commuting to School was graded C, and Diet was graded D-. Family and Peer Influence was graded D-; Perceived Safety and Availability of Space for PA as well as the National Policy Environment were more favorable (both B).

Conclusions:

Grades were identical to those in 2013. Scotland has a generally favorable environment for PA, but children and adolescents have low PA and high sedentary behavior. Gaps in surveillance included lack of objectively measured PA, no surveillance of moderate-to-vigorous PA in children, summary surveillance data not expressed in ways which match recommendations (eg, for PA in young children; for screen-time), and no surveillance of Sport Participation, Active and Outdoor Play, or Sitting. Scottish policy does not include sedentary behavior at present.

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Marilyn Roth and Emmanuel Stamatakis

Using the 2007 Health Survey for England, we examine whether knowledge of guidelines is linked to physical activity levels for 1,954 children aged 11–15, and the correlates of adhering to the guidelines. For girls, knowing the guidelines was associated with meeting them, but was weak among boys, for whom only white ethnicity was associated with meeting the guidelines. For girls, being younger, white, and from a manual social class background was associated with meeting the guidelines. Findings support the call for physical activity-promoting policy and programs aimed at specific groups of children who are prone to lower levels of activity.